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Table 1 Mechanical responses of the substrate under friction with different probe radiuses

From: Atomistic insight into the minimum wear depth of Cu(111) surface

Probe radius 6 nm 8 nm 10 nm 12 nm
Critical penetration force (nN) 387.1 565.9 814.4 1,081.1
Critical penetration depth (nm) 0.65 0.72 0.80 0.87
Critical contact pressure (GPa) 28.3 25.1 25.2 25.2
Average friction coefficient 0.126 0.118 0.103 0.098