Carrier trapping and escape times in p-i-n GaInNAs MQW structures
© Khalil and Balkan; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 17 October 2013
Accepted: 17 December 2013
Published: 13 January 2014
We used a semi-classical model to describe carrier capture into and thermionic escape from GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) situated within the intrinsic region of a GaAs p-i-n junction. The results are used to explain photocurrent oscillations with applied bias observed in these structures, in terms of charge accumulation and resonance tunnelling.
KeywordsGaInNAs/GaAs capture rates resonant tunnelling p-i-n multiple quantum wells
Over the last couple of decades, III-V compounds containing small quantities of nitrogen (dilute nitrides) have received much attention, both experimentally and theoretically. A number of books and review articles as well as a large number of papers in the field have been published [1–3]. The interest in this material system started with the discovery of a large bowing parameter upon the addition of small amounts of nitrogen into Ga(In)As. The band gap energy is reduced with increasing nitrogen composition . As a result, it has become possible to fabricate dilute nitride-based lasers, optical amplifiers and photo-detectors operating in the 1.3 and 1.55 μm windows of optical communication systems [5–7] and solar cells in multi-junction devices with increased efficiency [8, 9].
In the early days of low-dimensional semiconductors, carrier capture into quantum wells of the III-V compounds was studied with considerable interest aimed at improving the performance of quantum well (QW) lasers . First theoretical calculations of the carrier capture rates were performed by Shichijo  and Tang . The mechanism was regarded as a classical process where the carrier capture rate is limited by the optical phonon scattering and the mean free path. Another calculation, presented by Burn and Bastard , discovered strong oscillations in electron capture rates as a function of the well width. Babiker and Ridley  studied the electron capture rates in GaAs QWs by taking into account the quantum mechanical aspect of the capture process with strong resonances. It has been shown that capture rates strongly depend on structural parameters such as QW and barrier widths, number of wells and the mean free path of the carriers as limited by scattering processes [13, 14]. The reason for the choice of dilute nitride quantum wells is because in this study, we aimed at developing a photo-detector with a cutoff wavelength of around 1.3 μm that can be lattice matched to GaAs. Therefore, a resonant cavity-enhanced photo-detector by using GaAs/GaAlAs distributed Bragg reflectors to operate at the 1.3-μm communications window would be possible. Obviously, the main disadvantage of dilute nitrides compared to the InP-based material is the poor optical quality in devices with high nitrogen composition. This could be partly overcome by rapid thermal annealing at the expense of blue shifting of the operation wavelength.
In this paper, we present the theoretical analysis of the carrier capture and escape time in a Ga0.96In0.04 N0.015As0.985/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) situated within the built-in field of a GaAs p-i-n structure. Experimentally observed photocurrent oscillations in these structures [15, 16], explained in terms of charge accumulation and field domain formation, are shown to be in accord with our theoretical results.
Capture time and thermionic emission
The semi-classical model used in our analysis provides useful physical insight into carrier transport across and carrier capture into the MQWs. We show that the disparity between the electron and hole capture and re-emission times from the quantum wells leads to the accumulation of electrons within the quantum wells. In our samples, the selected In and N concentrations (Ga0.96 In0.04 N0.015 As0.985) in the quantum wells ensure good lattice matching to the GaAs barriers and the substrate . This allows the growth of thicker and high-quality layers and making the device suitable for photovoltaic applications where efficient absorption plays a fundamental rule .
In the quantum wells with the given composition, electrons are more strongly confined in the QWs (conduction band offset approximately 250 meV), than in the holes (valence band offset approximately 20 meV). The longitudinal optical (LO) phonon energy is ħωLO = 38 meV , which is higher than the binding energy of the holes in the QW. Therefore, the holes photo-generated at the GaAs will be captured by the QW via the emission of acoustic phonons. The capture of electrons, however, will involve inelastic scattering with LO phonons which will be very fast compared to the hole capture time and assumed, in our calculations, to be negligible compared to the hole capture rates .
Here, Eexcess is the laser excess energy, V h is the depth of the QW in the valence band, and is the electron effective mass in the QW. Since the optical excitation energy above the QW band gap, the laser excess energy term is negligible.
Where m * is the hole effective mass in the well.
Results and discussion
τcapture decreases exponentially with the QW width, as expected from Equation 3, where as τcross increases linearly. It is clear that the hole is more likely to traverse the quantum well than to be captured into the QW. In fact, the hole capture time is in the range of 4 to 13 ps, much longer than the 0.1 to 0.4 fs time needed to cross the QW. Thus, we assumed that at low temperatures, the last term [exp (eΦ/k B T)] in Equation 1 would be negligible.
In Figure 5, the current is plotted against applied voltage for both in darkness and when the sample was illuminated with photons with energies greater than the quantum well band gap.
The photocurrent in Figure 5 has two components; the thermionic current which increases monotonically with applied bias and the oscillatory component which is the resonant tunnelling current . In order to show clearly the oscillatory component, we took the first derivative of the photocurrent. The peak current values correspond to the resonant conditions in the wells adjacent to the anode similar to those as described in references [26, 28].
The aim of the work was to explain the photocurrent oscillations as a function of applied voltage that we observed in our earlier studies in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells placed in the intrinsic region of a GaAs pin structure. We have shown that hole thermal escape time of photo-generated holes within the quantum wells is very short compared to that of the electrons; therefore, the accumulation of negative charge in the QW may occur and give rise to the photocurrent via thermionic emission and resonant tunnelling. The resonant tunnelling component has an oscillatory behaviour with strong resonances.
We would like to thank COST action MP0805 entitled ‘Novel Gain Materials and Devices Based on III-V-N Compounds’ and EPSRC grant EP/P503965/01 for funding.
- Potter RJ, Balkan N: Optical properties of GaInNAs and GaNAs QWs. J Phys Condens Matter 2004, 16: 3387–3412. 10.1088/0953-8984/16/31/026View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Henini M: Dilute Nitride Semiconductors. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 2005.Google Scholar
- Erol A: Dilute III-V Nitride Semiconductor and Material Systems. Berlin: Springer Series; 2008.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kondow M, Uomi K, Niwa A, Kitatani T, Watahiki S, Yazawa Y: A novel material for long wavelength laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance. Jpn J Appl Phys 1996, 35: 1273–1275. 10.1143/JJAP.35.1273View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jewell J, Graham L, Crom M, Maranowski K, Smith J, Fanning T, Schnoes M: Commercial GaInNAs VCSELs grown by MBE. Phys Stat Sol 2008, 5: 2951–2956. 10.1002/pssc.200779295View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jaschke G, Averbeck R, Geelhaar L, Riechert H: Low threshold InGaAsN/GaAs lasers beyond 1500 nm. J Cryst Growth 2005, 278: 224–228. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.12.059View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laurand N, Calvez S, Dawson MD, Jouhti T, Konttinen J, Pessa M: 1.3-μm continuously-tunable fiber-coupled GaInNAs VCSEL. IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics 2005, 2: 1387–1389.Google Scholar
- Hartmann F, Langer F, Bisping D, Musterer A, Höfling S, Kamp M, Forchel A, Worschech L: GaAs/AlGaAs resonant tunnelling diodes with a GaInNAs absorption layer for telecommunication light sensing. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 100: 172113–172115. 10.1063/1.4709421View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Courel M, Rimada JC, Hernández L: GaAs/GaInNAs quantum well and superlattice solar cell. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 100: 073508–073511. 10.1063/1.3687195View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nagarajan R, Fukushima T, Corzine SW, Bowers JE: Effects of carrier transport on high-speed quantum well lasers. Appl Phys Lett 1991, 59: 1835–1837. 10.1063/1.106213View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shichijo H, Kolbas RM, Holonyak N, Coleman JJ, Dapkus PD: Calculations in strained quantum wells. Sol Stat Comm 1978, 27: 1029–1032. 10.1016/0038-1098(78)91031-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tang JY, Hess K, Holonyak N, Coleman JJ, Dapkus PD: The dynamics of electron hole collection in quantum well heterostructures. J Appl Phys 1982, 53: 6043–6046. 10.1063/1.331554View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brum JA, Bastard G: Resonant carrier capture by semiconductor quantum wells. Phys Rev B 1986, 33: 1420–1423. 10.1103/PhysRevB.33.1420View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Babiker M, Ridley BK: Effective-mass eigenfunctions in superlattices and their role in well-capture. Superlatt Microstruct 1986, 2: 287–293. 10.1016/0749-6036(86)90034-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khalil HM, Mazzucato S, Ardali S, Celik O, Mutlu S, Royall B, Tiras E, Balkan N, Puustinen J, Korpijärvi VM, Guina M: Temperature and magnetic field effect on oscillations observed in GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells structures. Mat Sci Engin B 2012, 177: 729–733. 10.1016/j.mseb.2011.12.022View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khalil HM, Mazzucato S, Royall B, Balkan N, Puustinen J, Korpijärvi V-M, Guina M: Photocurrent oscillations in GaInNAs/GaAs multi-quantum well p-i-n structures. IEEE 2011, 978: 127–129.Google Scholar
- Van de Walle CG: Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory. Phys Rev B 1989, 39: 1871–1883. 10.1103/PhysRevB.39.1871View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gupta R, Ridley BK: Elastic scattering of phonons and interface polaritons in semiconductor heterostructures. Phys Rev B 1993, 48: 11972–11978. 10.1103/PhysRevB.48.11972View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sze SM: Physics of Semiconductor Devices. 2nd edition. New York: J. Wiley; 1981.Google Scholar
- Samuel EP, Talele K, Zope U, Patil DS: Semi-classical analysis of hole capture in Gallium Nitride quantum wells. Optoelect Adv Matt 2007, 1: 221–226.Google Scholar
- Mosko M, Kalna K: Carrier capture into a GaAs quantum well with a separate confinement region. Semicond Sci Technol 1999, 14: 790–796. 10.1088/0268-1242/14/9/308View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khalil HM, Mazzucato S, Balkan N: Hole capture and escape times in p-i-n GaInNAs/GaAs MQW structures. AIP Conf Proc 2012, 1476: 155–158.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fox M, Miller DAB, Livescu G, Cunningham JE, Jan WY: Quantum well carrier sweep out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation. IEEE J Quantum Electron 1991, 27: 2281–2295. 10.1109/3.97272View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shan W, Walukiewicz W, Ager JW, Haller EE, Geisz JF, Friedman DJ, Olson JM, Kurtz SR: Band anticrossingin GaInNAs alloys. Phys Rev Lett 1999, 82: 1221–1224. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1221View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grahn HT, Balkan N, Ridley BK, Vickers AJ: Negative Differential Resistance and Instabilities in 2-D Semiconductors. New York: NATO ASI Series; 1993:189–202.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Royall B, Balkan N, Mazzucato S, Khalil HM, Hugues M, Roberts JS: Comparative study of GaAs and GaInNAs/GaAs multi-quantum well solar cells. Phys Stat Sol B 2011, 248(5):1191–1194. 10.1002/pssb.201000774View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khalil HM, Royall B, Mazzucato S, Balkan N: Photoconductivity and photoluminescence under bias in GaInNAs/GaAs MQW p-i-n structures. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7: 539–542. 10.1186/1556-276X-7-539View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laikhtman B: Current–voltage instabilities in superlattices. Phys Rev B 1991, 44: 11260–11265. 10.1103/PhysRevB.44.11260View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.