Preparation and ageing-resistant properties of polyester composites modified with functional nanoscale additives
© Guo et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 14 January 2014
Accepted: 15 April 2014
Published: 7 May 2014
This study investigated ageing-resistant properties of carboxyl-terminated polyester (polyethylene glycol terephthalate) composites modified with nanoscale titanium dioxide particles (nano-TiO2). The nano-TiO2 was pretreated by a dry coating method, with aluminate coupling agent as a functional grafting additive. The agglomeration resistance was evaluated, which exhibited significant improvement for the modified nanoparticles. Then, the effects of the modified nano-TiO2 on the crosslinking and ageing-resistant properties of the composites were studied. With a real-time Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurement, the nano-TiO2 displayed promoting effect on the crosslinking of polyester resin with triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) as crosslinking agent. Moreover, the gloss retention, colour aberration and the surface morphologies of the composites during accelerated UV ageing (1500 hours) were investigated. The results demonstrated much less degree of ageing degradation for the nanocomposites, indicating an important role of the nano-TiO2 in improving the ageing-resistant properties of synthetic polymer composites.
KeywordsNano-TiO2 Surface modification Polyester composite Crosslinking UV ageing
Ultra-violet (UV) radiation is a cytotoxic waveband of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface . Exposure to UV radiation from the sun is associated with different harmful effects for the organisms and synthetic polymer materials [2, 3]. DNA is obviously one of the key targets for UV-induced damage in a variety of organisms which is traditionally attributed to the direct absorption of UV photons by nucleic acids and protein [1, 4]. And the exposure of polymers to UV radiation may produce degradation discoloration and/or brittle fracture . This is due to the UV irradiation-induced chemical reactions such as chain scission, crosslinking, oxidation or bond cleavage in the polymers [6–8]. All these damages may be undesirable due to their adverse impacts on the safety of organisms and the period of use of polymers. So, many organic and inorganic filters have been used to absorb and scatter UV radiation [3, 9].
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), which can be either amorphous or crystalline , is used extensively in numerous applications, such as bone tissue engineering , bactericidal agents  and cosmetics . The light absorption properties of anatase and rutile TiO2 are excellent since their absorption (approximately 400 nm) falls between the visible and UV regions . Especially, ultrafine rutile TiO2 particles (< 100 nm) were used as a functional nanoscale additive because of its potential for the wide range (both UVB and UVA regions) of UV-ray shielding by their absorption, scattering and reflecting properties . Once TiO2 is exposed to UV radiation, an electron is promoted from the valence band to the unoccupied conduction band, creating excitons . Rayleigh's theory implies that shorter wavelengths of light are more efficiently scattered by smaller particles . However, the smaller size leads to higher values of surface area which presents high surface energy and activity, so the nanoparticles tend to form agglomeration [18–20].
Particle aggregates in composite materials would decrease adhesion between nanoparticles and polymeric materials, which will result in an early failure at the interface and thus increase the susceptibility to physical and mechanical failure [21, 22]. To achieve proper dispersion of nanoparticles in polymer matrix and to yield a better compatibility between the nanoparticles and polymeric materials, several groups have attempted to prevent the aggregation by modifying the surface groups of nano-TiO2 with different reagents including the silane coupling agent [23, 24], the hydrolysis-condensation reactions (sol-gel method)  and in situ bulk polymerization [25, 26]. Several polymers have been mixed with nano-TiO2 successfully including polystyrene (PS) , polythiophene (PTh) , poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) , etc. Polyester resin has been widely studied as they possess many advantages including good mechanical properties, transparency, remarkable durability and flexibility [29, 30]. However, the widespread use of polyester resin is blocked in many high-performance applications because of its limited ageing-resistant properties. Many methods have been used to improve the ageing-resistant properties of the polyester resin, such as synthesizing and modification of the resin, selection of curing system and curing agent in powder coatings and composited with suitable functional additives [31–34]. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, it is still highly desirable to develop more industrial available processes for the surface modification of nano-TiO2, preparation of polyester/nano-TiO2, and their ageing-resistant properties.
In this investigation, we pretreated the nano-TiO2 particles and prepared the polyester/nano-TiO2 composites by melt-blend extrusion method. The aluminate coupling agent was employed as a functional grafting agent to realize a surface modification of the nano-TiO2. The particle size distribution, hydrophilic angle, UV reflection characteristic of the nano-TiO2, and its dispersion state in the polyester were detected. Moreover, the effect of nano-TiO2 on the gloss retention, colour aberration and morphology of the composites was investigated during the UV ageing. The dry modification method for the nano-TiO2 and its application as functional nanoscale additive are highly available for the widespread applications of polyester resin/TiO2 composites and would provide considerable insights into the protection of natural and synthetic carbohydrate polymers from the UV irradiation.
Carboxyl-terminated polyester resin (polyethylene glycol terephthalate) was purchased from Cytec Surface Specialties Inc., Woodland Park, NJ, USA, with an acid value of 33 mg KOH/g and a curing temperature of 190°C. Triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) was used as curing agent and also purchased from Cytec Surface Specialties Inc. Rutile nano-TiO2 was purchased from Panzhihua Iron & Steel Research Institute in China, with grain size of 30 to 50 nm. Aluminate coupling agent was purchased from Chongqing Jiashitai Chemical Co. (Chongqing, China).
Surface modification of nano-TiO2
The nano-TiO2 particles were modified with 1.5 wt.% aluminate coupling agent (based on the nano-TiO2 particles content). Firstly, the nano-TiO2 particles were put into a high-speed mixer (Dachen Machinery Manufacturing Co., Beijing, China, SHR-10A) and pre-mixed with a rotate speed of 2,000 rpm at 130°C. The collisions of the powder with stirring blade resulted in a high impaction and dispersion. Some powders were brought out for the other characterizations in this work. Then, 1.5 wt.% of aluminate coupling agent was added into the powder, and the mixtures were stirred further for 20 min. Subsequently, the mixtures were centrifuged and washed with fresh ethanol to remove the coupling agent adsorbed physically on the surface of nano-TiO2 particles. Finally, the modified particles were dried at 60°C for 2 h.
Preparation of polyester/nano-TiO2 composites
We prepared the polyester/nano-TiO2 composite with different amounts of modified nano-TiO2. Firstly, four groups of the polyester resin 93 g and TGIC 7 g were blended physically and labelled as samples 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Then, the modified nano-TiO2 with the amount of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt.% based on the polyester resin content were added into the samples, respectively. The raw materials were mixed (at 90°C for 5 min) with a rotating speed of 2,000 rpm. During the mixing, the raw materials were melted and then extruded in a twin screw extruder. The extrudate was milled and sieved into particle with size less than 100 μm for further measurements.
The surface functional groups of nano-TiO2 were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer (Bruker, Tensor 27, Madison, WI, USA) with a detection resolution of 4 cm-1. The samples were acquired by compacting sheet of nano-TiO2/potassium bromide powder mixture (1:100 in mass) and then drying at 110°C for 5 min. The crystalline structure of the nano-TiO2 was detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) (X'Pert, Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) using a 4-kW monochromatic Cu Kα (λ = 0.15406 nm) radiation source.
The nano-TiO2 powder was pressed to be compact sheet, and then the surface modification effect of the samples was evaluated by measuring the hydrophilicity. An automatic contact angle analyzer (DSA 100, Kruss, Hamburg, Germany) was employed.
The nano-TiO2 powder was dispersed in ethanol with a viscosity of 0.5 mPa · S. Then, the particle size and size distribution of the nano-TiO2 powder was analyzed by Dynamic light scattering spectrum (DLS) (ZS-90, Malvern, Grovewood Road, Malvern, UK).
The dispersion of nano-TiO2 in the composites was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) (FEI, Inspect F, Hillsboro, OR, USA). Nano-TiO2 with 1.5 wt.% addition amount was added to prepare the composite powder, which was then cured in a PTFE mould at 190°C for 15 min and formed the sheets with thickness of 3 mm. Then, the sheets underwent brittle fracture in liquid nitrogen atmosphere, followed by gold sputter coated on the fracture sections. The FE-SEM was carried out with an accelerating voltage of 20 kV.
The reflection characteristics of the nano-TiO2 before and after surface modification were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis) with a wavelength range from 190 to 700 nm.
The UV ageing resistance of the samples was carried out under the light-exposure conditions that simulate the requirements for real outdoor applications. A UV accelerated ageing chamber was equipped with fluorescent lamps emitting in the spectral region from 280 to 370 nm, of which the maximum irradiation peak occurs around 313 nm. The samples were placed for 1500 h in the chamber, and the time-dependent gloss retention and colour aberration of the samples across the ageing was measured.
G 0 and G x are the gloss of the sample without ageing and that of the sample aged with several hours, which were measured by a gloss spectrometer (WGG-66, Shanghai precision optical instrument Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China).
where L x , a x and b x are the lightness, redness-greeness and yellowness-blueness, respectively. These parameters of the samples before and after ageing were measured by a colour spectrometer (CR-10, Minolta Co., Osaka, Japan).
The surface morphology and roughness of the composites before and after ageing were studied by Atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Nanoscope Multimode APM, Vecco Instrument, Plainview, NY, USA) with a tapping mode under ambient condition.
Results and discussion
Figure 3c,d compared the dispersion homogeneity of nano-TiO2 with 1.5 wt.% in the polymeric matrix. The unmodified nano-TiO2 agglomerated obviously, and the particle size was about 350 nm. It is resulted from limited compatibility of the unmodified nano-TiO2 with hydrophilic (Figure 3c). Nevertheless, Figure 3d exhibits fewer agglomerates of modified nano-TiO2 in the sample. Although the dispersion of nanoparticles is also limited due to the melt-blend extrusion, the size of the modified nano-TiO2 is uniform of about 100 nm. This is in accordance with the DLS result. Here, we could see significantly improved dispersion of nano-TiO2 particle in the polyester matrix, which further illustrates the importance of the surface modification process.
Generally, the absorption band around 910 cm-1 was assigned to monitor the epoxy equivalent conversion (the C-O-C bond of epoxy groups) [45, 46]. Figure 5b,c shows the FT-IR spectrum of the composites with unmodified and modified nano-TiO2, respectively. The decreased intensity of the absorption band could be attributed to the ring-opening of epoxy groups induced by the reaction between hydroxyl of COOH and epoxy groups during the crosslinking. In contrast to the sample with unmodified nano-TiO2, the sample with modified nano-TiO2 exhibits larger decreasing amplitude of the absorbance. Particularly, the absorbance at 908 cm-1 as a function of temperature for the two systems were plotted in Figure 5d, demonstrating a faster decreasing tendency of the absorbance at this band for the polyester/modified nano-TiO2 composite. It suggests a promoting effect of modified nano-TiO2 on the crosslinking reaction.
As a supplement, the colour aberration (determined by the value of ΔE) of the samples during the accelerated ageing was also observed. Figure 6b shows significant decrease in the colour aberration of the samples with modified nano-TiO2. This is due to lower degradation occurred in the polyester/nano-TiO2 composites. In this case, the nano-TiO2 plays a role in shielding UV radiation by absorption and scattering. After 1500-h ageing, the ΔE of the sample modified with 2.0 wt.% nano-TiO2 is 2.15, with reduction of 27.6% compared to a 2.97 ΔE of the sample without nano-TiO2. Coinciding with the results of gloss retention, the colour aberration of the sample decreases with the concentration of nano-TiO2.
Mean value of surface roughness parameters (Ra) and root-mean-square (RMS) height of the samples
Polyester without nano-TiO2
Polyester/2.0 wt% nano-TiO2 composite
The nano-TiO2 was modified with aluminate coupling agent by a dry coating method. The FT-IR, contact angle and DLS measurements demonstrated a linkage of organic functional groups to the nano-TiO2, resulting in improved agglomeration resistance. Then, the modified nano-TiO2 was employed as a functional additive to prepare the polyester/nano-TiO2 composites by melt-blend extrusion method. With a real-time FT-IR study, the nano-TiO2 exhibited a promoting effect on the crosslinking reaction of polyester with TGIC. Furthermore, the gloss retention, colour aberration and the surface morphologies of the composites during an accelerated UV ageing were investigated. The results indicated that the nanocomposites exhibited much less degree of ageing degradation, due to a strong UV shielding ability of the nano-TiO2. Particularly, the polyester/nano-TiO2 presented an improvement of 42.5% in the gloss retention and a reduction of 27.6% in the colour aberration after 1500 h UV ageing. This work proposed a dry modification method for the nano-TiO2 and its application as functional nanoscale additive, which are highly available for the widespread applications of polyester resin/TiO2 composites, and would provide considerable insights into the protection of natural and synthetic carbohydrate polymers from the UV irradiation.
This work was financially supported by the National 863 Project (2003AA32X230), National S&T Major Project (2011ZX09102-001-10 and 2013ZX09301304-007), Science & Technology Support Programm of Sichuan Province (2013FZ0076) and Younger Fund of the Ministry of Education (10XJCZH005). And we would like to show our great thanks to Wang Hui (Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University) due to her great help in SEM observation.
- Santos AL, Gomes NCM, Henriques I, Almeida A, Correia A, Cunha Â: Contribution of reactive oxygen species to UV-B-induced damage in bacteria. J Photoch Photobio B 2010, 117: 40–46.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Finlay-Jones JJ, Hart PH: Photoprotection: sunscreens and the immunomodulatory effects of UV irradiation. Mutat Res-Fund Mol M 1998, 422: 155–159. 10.1016/S0027-5107(98)00187-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shi L, Shan JN, Ju YG, Aikens P, Prud’homme RK: Nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for sunscreen agents. Colloid Surf A 2012, 396: 122–129.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sinha RP, Häder DP: UV-induced DNA damage and repair: a review. Photoch Photobio Sci 2002, 1: 225–236. 10.1039/b201230hView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Slater S, Glassner D, Vink E, Gerngross T: Evaluating the environmental impact of biopolymers. Biopolymers online 2005, 10: 474–491.Google Scholar
- Gorrasi G, Milone C, Piperopoulos E, Lanza M, Sorrentino A: Hybrid clay mineral-carbon nanotube-PLA nanocomposite films. Preparation and photodegradation effect on their mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Appl Clay Sci 2013, 71: 49–54.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Woo RSC, Chen YH, Zhu HG, Li J, Kim JK, Leung CKY: Environmental degradation of epoxy–organoclay nanocomposites due to UV exposure. Part I: Photo-degradation. Compos Sci Technol 2007, 67: 3448–3456. 10.1016/j.compscitech.2007.03.004View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sionkowska A, Kaczmarek H, Wisniewski M, Kowalonek J, Skopinska J: Surface characteristics of UV-irradiated collagen/PVP blended films. Surf Sci 2004, 566–568: 608–612.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Serpone N, Dondi D, Albini A: Inorganic and organic UV filters: their role and efficacy in sunscreens and suncare products. Inorg Chim Acta 2007, 360: 794–802. 10.1016/j.ica.2005.12.057View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koelsch M, Cassaignon S, Ta Thanh Minh C, Guillemoles JF, Jolivet JP: Electrochemical comparative study of titania (anatase, brookite and rutile) nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous medium. Thin Solid Films 2004, 451: 86–92.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tiainen H, Eder G, Nilsen O, Haugen HJ: Effect of ZrO2 addition on the mechanical properties of porous TiO2 bone scaffolds. Mater Sci Eng C 2012, 32: 1386–1393. 10.1016/j.msec.2012.04.014View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bahloul W, Mélis F, Bounor-Legaré V, Cassagnau P: Structural characterization and antibacterial activity of PP/TiO2 nanocomposites prepared by an in situ sol–gel method. Mater Chem Phys 2012, 134: 399–406. 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2012.03.008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Labille J, Feng J, Botta C, Borschneck D, Sammut M, Cabie M, Auffan M, Rose J, Bottero JY: Aging of TiO2 nanocomposites used in sunscreen. Dispersion and fate of the degradation products in aqueous environment. Environ Pollut 2010, 158: 3482–3489. 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.02.012View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Buchalska M, Kras G, Oszajca M, Lasocha W, Macyk W: Singlet oxygen generation in the presence of titanium dioxide materials used as sunscreens in suntan lotions. J Photoch Photobio A 2010, 213: 158–163. 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2010.05.019View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ukaji E, Furusawa T, Sato M, Suzuki N: The effect of surface modification with silane coupling agent on suppressing the photo-catalytic activity of fine TiO2 particles as inorganic UV filter. Appl Surf Sci 2007, 254: 563–569. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.06.061View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Allen NS, Edge M: Fundamentals of Polymer Degradation and Stabilization. Chichester: Chapman and Hall; 1992.Google Scholar
- Allen NS, Edge M, Ortega A, Liauw CM, Stratton J, McIntyre RB: Behaviour of nanoparticle (ultrafine) titanium dioxide pigments and stabilizers on the photooxidative stability of water based acrylic and isocyanate based acrylic coatings. Polym Degrad Stabil 2002, 78: 467–478. 10.1016/S0141-3910(02)00189-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guo G, Yu J, Luo Z, Qian ZY, Tu MJ: Effect of rutile titanium dioxide nanoparticles and hindered amine light stabilizer on the ageing resistant properties of ABS. Acta Polym Sin 2008, 8: 733–739.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Allen NS, Edge M, Ortega A, Sandoval G, Liauw CM, Verran J, Stratton J, Mclntyre RB: Degradation and stabilization of polymers and coatings: nano versus pigmentary titania particles. Polym Degrad Stabil 2004, 85: 927–946. 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2003.09.024View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Holzmann D, Schöfberger W, Holzinger D, Schmidt T, Knor G: Functional nanoscale additives for ultra-durable powder-coating polymers. Monatsh Chem 2011, 142: 855–860. 10.1007/s00706-011-0516-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fan RR, Zhou LX, Song W, Li DX, Zhang DM, Ye R, Zheng Y, Guo G: Preparation and properties of g-TTCP/PBS nanocomposites and its in vitro biocompatibility assay. Int J Biol Macromol 2013, 59: 227–234.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ciprar D, Jacob K, Tannenbaum R: Characterization of polymer nanocomposite interphase and its impact on mechanical properties. Macromolecules 2006, 39: 6565–6573. 10.1021/ma0602270View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smith NA, Antoun GG, Ellis AB, Crone WC: Improved adhesion between nickel–titanium shape memory alloy and a polymer matrix via silane coupling agents. Composites Part A-Appl S 2004, 35: 1307–1312. 10.1016/j.compositesa.2004.03.025View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sabzi M, Mirabedini SM, Zohuriaan-Mehr J, Atai M: Surface modification of TiO2 nano-particles with silane coupling agent and investigation of its effect on the properties of polyurethane composite coating. Prog Org Coat 2009, 65: 222–228. 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2008.11.006View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Motaung TE, Luyt AS, Bondioli F, Messori M, Saladino ML, Spinella A, Nasillo G, Caponetti E: PMMA-titania nanocomposites: properties and thermal degradation behaviour. Polym Degrad Stabil 2012, 97: 1325–1333. 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2012.05.022View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guo G, Yu J, Luo Z, Zhou LX, Liang H, Luo F, Qian ZY: Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate)/nano-titanium oxide composite particles. J Nanosci Nanotechno 2011, 11: 4923–4928. 10.1166/jnn.2011.4119View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zan L, Wang SL, Fa WJ, Hu YH, Tian LH, Deng KJ: Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polystyrene with modified nano-TiO2 catalyst. Polymer 2006, 47: 8155–8162. 10.1016/j.polymer.2006.09.023View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vu QT, Pavlik M, Hebestreit N, Rammelt U, Plieth W, Pfleger J: Nanocomposites based on titanium dioxide and polythiophene: structure and properties. React Funct Polym 2005, 65: 69–77. 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2004.11.011View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aziz SH, Ansell MP, Clarke SJ, Panteny SR: Modified polyester resins for natural fibre composites. Compos Sci Technol 2005, 65: 525–535. 10.1016/j.compscitech.2004.08.005View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Piazza D, Silveira DS, Lorandi NP, Birriel EJ, Scienza LC, Zattera AJ: Polyester-based powder coatings with montmorillonite nanoparticles applied on carbon steel. Prog Org Coat 2012, 73: 42–46. 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2011.08.018View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kijchavengkul T, Auras R, Rubino M, Selke S, Ngouajio M, Fernandez RT: Formulation selection of aliphatic aromatic biodegradable polyester film exposed to UV/solar radiation. Polym Degrad Stabil 2011, 96: 1919–1926. 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2011.07.001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kumar AP, Depan D, Tomer NS, Singh RP: Nanoscale particles for polymer degradation and stabilization—trends and future perspectives. Prog Polym Sci 2009, 34: 479–515. 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.01.002View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shokrieh MM, Bayat A: Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mechanical properties of glass/polyester. J Compos Mater 2007, 41: 2443–2455. 10.1177/0021998307075441View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Johnson BW, Parducci U, Nascovilli E, Phillips A, Lia R, Cunliffe Z, Wilkinson R: An evaluation of the effect of light stabilizers on the exterior durability of polyester powder coatings for the architectural market. Surf Coat Int 1999, 82: 134–141. 10.1007/BF02720111View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jerman I, Koželj M, Orel B: The effect of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane dispersant and low surface energy additives on spectrally selective paint coatings with self-cleaning properties. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 2010, 94: 232–245. 10.1016/j.solmat.2009.09.008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang CX, Mao HY, Wang CX, Fu SH: Dispersibility and hydrophobicity analysis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles grafted with silane coupling agent. Ind Eng Chem Res 2011, 50: 11930–11934. 10.1021/ie200887xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao J, Milanova M, Warmoeskerken MMCG, Dutschk V: Surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles with silane coupling agents. Colloid Surf A 2012, 413: 273–279.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Godnjavec J, Znoj B, Veronovski N, Venturini P: Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes as titanium dioxide surface modifiers for transparent acrylic UV blocking hybrid coating. Prog Org Coat 2012, 74: 654–659. 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2011.09.032View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Veronovski N, Andreozzi P, La Mesa C, Sfiligoj-Smole M, Ribitsch V: Use of Gemini surfactants to stabilize TiO2 P25 colloidal dispersions. Colloid Polym Sci 2010, 288: 387–394. 10.1007/s00396-009-2133-xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang HY, Zhu SK, Pan N: Studying the mechanisms of titanium dioxide as ultraviolet‒blocking additive for films and fabrics by an improved scheme. J Appl Polym Sci 2004, 92: 3201–3210.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Halász L, Vorster O: Gelation in reactive polyester powder coating systems. Progr Colloid Polym Sci 1996, 102: 76–81. 10.1007/BFb0114392View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Montazer M, Pakdel E: Reducing photoyellowing of wool using nano TiO2. Photochem Photobiol 2010, 86: 255–260. 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2009.00680.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Erdoğan BC, Seyhan AT, Ocak Y, Tanoğlu M, Balköse D, Ülkü S: Cure kinetics of epoxy resin-natural zeolite composites. J Therm Anal and Calorim 2008, 94: 743–747. 10.1007/s10973-008-9366-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alemdar N, Karagoz B, Erciyes T, Bicak N: Surface modification of silica, titania, and zinc oxide micro particles with epoxidized soybean oil for preparation of polystyrene composite films. J Appl Polym Sci 2010, 116: 165–171.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morell M, Ramis X, Ferrando F, Yu YF, Serra A: New improved thermosets obtained from DGEBA and a hyperbranched poly(ester-amide). Polymer 2009, 50: 5374–5383. 10.1016/j.polymer.2009.09.024View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fernández-Francos X, Salla JM, Cadenato A, Morancho JM, Serra A, Mantecón JM, Ramis X: A new strategy for controlling shrinkage of DGEBA resins cured by cationic copolymerization with hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polymers and ytterbium triflate as an initiator. J Appl Polym Sci 2008, 111: 2822–2829.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.