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Table 1 Effects of engineered metal nanoparticles on plants

From: Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

Nanoparticle Size (nm) Plant Concentration Effect References
Aluminium   Corn, cucumber, lettuce, radish, rapeseed 2,000 mg L-1 No effect on germination [44]
1 to 100 Red kidney beans, ryegrass 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 mg L-1 No toxicity [45]
  Radish, rapeseed 2,000 mg L-1 Improved root growth [44]
  Ryegrass 2,000 mg L-1 Decreased root length [44]
  Ryegrass 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced germination [44]
  Corn, lettuce 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced root length [44]
Copper   Lettuce 0.013% (w/w) No effect on germination, improved shoot/root ratio [13]
  Mung bean <200 mg L-1 Reduced seedling growth [30]
  Mung bean 800 mg L-1 Reduced shoot growth [30]
  Wheat <200 mg L-1 Reduced root and seedling growth [30]
50 Zucchini 1,000 mg L-1 Reduced biomass [46]
50 Zucchini 1,000 mg L-1 Reduced root growth [46]
Dodecanethiol-functionalized gold   Lettuce 0.013% (w/w) No effect on germination, improved shoot/root ratio [13]
Gold 10 Cucumber, lettuce 62, 100 and 116 mg L-1 Positive effect on germination index [47]
Iron   Flax, meadow fescue, red clover, white clover 100, 250 and 500 mg L-1 No effect on germination [48]
  Barley, ryegrass 100 and 250 mg L-1 No effect on germination [48]
  Barley, flax, ryegrass 2,000 and 5,000 mg L-1 Completely inhibited germination [48]
  Barley 300 mg L-1 Reduced germination [48]
  Flax, barley, ryegrass >1,500 mg L-1 No germination [48]
Mixture of gold/copper   Lettuce 0.013% (w/w) No effect on germination, improved shoot/root ratio [13]
Palladium entrapped in Al(OH)2 matrix   Lettuce 0.013% to 0.066% (w/w) No effect on germination, improved shoot/root ratio [13]
Silicon 10 Zucchini 1,000 mg L-1 Completely inhibited germination [46]
Silver 20 Flax 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L-1 No effect on germination [48]
2 Cucumber, lettuce 62, 100 and 116 mg L-1 Low to zero toxicity [47]
20.6 ± 3.1 Clover 0.01 mg kg-1 Reduced aboveground biomass [49]
0.1 mg kg-1 No effect on biomass [49]
1 mg kg-1 No effect on biomass [49]
10 Wheat 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0 mg kg-1 Reduced shoot and root length [50]
5 Barley 10 mg L-1 Reduced germination [48]
  Flax, barley 10 mg L-1 Reduced shoot length [48]
20 Barley 10 mg L-1 Reduced germination [48]
  Barley 10 mg L-1 Reduced shoot length [48]
  Barley, ryegrass 20 mg L-1 Reduced shoot length [48]
100 Zucchini 100, 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 Reduced transpiration [46]
100 Zucchini 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 Reduced biomass [46]
<100 Onion 100 mg L-1 Decreased mitosis, disturbed metaphase, sticky chromosome, cell wall disintegration and breaks [51]
Silver colloidal form 0.6 to 2 Ryegrass 10 mg L-1 Reduced germination [48]
  Ryegrass 20 mg L-1 Reduced germination [48]
  Flax, ryegrass 10 mg L-1 Reduced shoot length [48]
  Barley, flax, ryegrass 20 mg L-1 Reduced shoot length [48]
Zinc   Corn, cucumber, lettuce, radish, rapeseed, ryegrass 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced root growth and elongation [44]