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Table 2 Effects of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles on plants

From: Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

Nanoparticle Size (nm) Plant Concentration Effect References
Al2O3   Corn, cucumber, lettuce, radish, rapeseed, ryegrass 2,000 mg L-1 No effect on germination [44]
13 Carrots, cabbage, cucumber, maize 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced root growth [146]
  Corn 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced root length [44]
CeO2 7 Alfalfa 1,000 and 2,000 mg L-1 Slightly reduced shoot growth [147]
  Tomato 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced shoot growth [147]
  Cucumber 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced shoot growth [147]
  Maize 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced shoot growth [147]
  Alfalfa 500 mg L-1 Reduced biomass [147]
  Maize 500 to 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced germination [147]
  Maize 4,000 mg L-1 Reduced root growth [147]
  Tomato, cucumber 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced germination [147]
  Tomato 1,000 to 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced root growth [147]
  Alfalfa 2,000 to 4,000 mg L-1 Reduced root growth [147]
  Soybean 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced germination [147]
7 Alfalfa, corn, soybean 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 mg L-1 Increased root and stem growth [147]
<25 Wheat 100 mg L-1 [148]
8.0 ± 1.0 Coriander 125 mg kg-1 Increased shoot and root length, increased biomass, increased catalase activity in shoots and increased ascorbate peroxidise activity in roots [149]
231 ± 16 Rice 62.50 and 125 mg L-1 Reduced H2O2 generation in shoots and roots [150]
500 mg L-1 Increased electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation in shoots [150]
FeO 10.2 ± 2.6 Clover 3.2 mg kg-1 Reduced aboveground and belowground biomass [49]
Fe3O4 20 Pumpkin 500 mg L-1 No toxic effect [29]
7 Cucumber, lettuce 62, 100 and 116 mg L-1 Low to zero toxicity [47]
Magnetite (iron oxide)   Soybean 0.2, 0.4, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 Increased chlorophyll levels [151]
Mixture of SiO2/TiO2   Soybean   Increased germination and shoot growth, increased nitrate reductase activity, increased absorption and utilization of water/fertilizer and enhanced antioxidant system [129]
Ni(OH)2 8.7 Mesquite 2 mg L-1 No effect [152]
Nanosized TiO2 21 Wheat 10 ppm Reduced germination [153]
    2 and 10 ppm Increased shoot and seedling lengths  
    100 and 500 ppm Reduced shoot and seedling lengths  
    100 ppm Increased root dry matter production  
Nanoanatase (TiO2) 4 to 6 Spinach 0.25% Enhanced rca mRNA expressions, protein levels, activity of Rubisco activase, Rubisco carboxylation, the rate of photosynthetic carbon reaction, single plant dry weight and chlorophyll content [154]
5 Spinach 0.25% Improved spinach growth related to N2 fixation by TiO2 [155]
5 Spinach 0.25% Improved light absorbance, transformation from light energy to electron energy, and active chemical energy and promoted carbon dioxide assimilation [156]
Rutile (TiO2)   Spinach (naturally aged) 0.25% to 4% Increased germination and germination and vigour indices, plant dry weight, chlorophyll formation, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity and photosynthetic rate [10]
  Spinach 0.25% to 4% Promoted photosynthesis, the rate of evolution of oxygen in the chloroplasts was accelerated [130]
TiO2/inorganic bentonite clay 30/1 to 60 Maize 300 and 1,000 mg L-1 Inhibited hydraulic conductivity, leaf growth and transpiration [157]
ZnO 8 Soybean 500 mg L-1 Increased root growth [147]
9 to 37 (mean 19 ± 7) Ryegrass 1,000 mg L-1 Reduced biomass, shrank root tips, epidermis and root cap were broken, highly vacuolated and collapsed cortical cells [44]
  Corn 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced germination [44]
  Corn, cucumber, lettuce, radish, rapeseed, ryegrass 2,000 mg L-1 Reduced root growth and elongation [44]
5 Zucchini 1,000 mg L-1 Reduced biomass [46]
8 Soybean 2,000 and 4,000 mg L-1 Decreased root growth [147]
3-Amino-functionalized SiO2   Lettuce 0.013% to 0.066% (w/w) No effect on germination, improved shoot/root ratio [13]