Characteristics of synthesized QDs and PQDs (red). The size histograms of synthesized (a) CdSe and (b) CdSe/ZnS in chloroform and (c) PQDs in MES buffer (pH = 6.0). (d) Electrophoretic images of synthesized amphiphilic polymer and PQDs. The left panel was taken under 365-nm UV lamp, and the right panel was taken in room light after staining with lead acetate and potassium chromate (lane 1, amphiphilic polymer; lane 2, PQDs). (e) SDS-PAGE results of PQDs (lane 1), antibody (BRCAA1, lane 2), and PQD-antibody conjugates (lane 3).