Structure and the catalysis mechanism of oxidative chlorination in nanostructural layers of a surface of alumina
© Kurta et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 9 December 2013
Accepted: 26 June 2014
Published: 15 July 2014
On the basis of X-ray diffraction and mass spectrometric analysis of carrier γ-Al2O3 and catalysts CuCl2/CuCl on its surface, the chemical structure of the active centers of two types oxidative chlorination catalysts applied and permeated type of industrial brands “Harshow” and “MEDС-B” was investigated. On the basis of quantum-mechanical theory of the crystal, field complexes were detected by the presence of CuCl2 cation stoichiometry and structure of the proposed model crystal quasichemical industrial catalyst permeated type MEDС-B for oxidative chlorination of ethylene. On the basis of quantum-mechanical calculations, we propose a new mechanism of catalysis crystal quasichemical oxidative chlorination of ethylene reaction for the catalysts of this type (MEDС-B) and confirmed the possibility of such a mechanism after the analysis of mass spectrometric studies of the active phase (H2 [CuCl4]) catalyst oxidative chlorination of ethylene. The possibility of the formation of atomic and molecular chlorine on the oxidative chlorination of ethylene catalyst surface during Deacon reaction was displaying, which may react with ethylene to produce 1,2-dichloroethane. For the active phase (H [CuCl2]), catalyst offered another model of the metal complex catalyst oxidative chlorination of ethylene deposited type (firm ‘Harshow,’ USA) and the mechanism of catalysis of oxidative chlorination of ethylene with this catalyst.
Determination of the mechanism of catalysis of the process of oxidative chlorination of ethylene to 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-EDC) gives practical result for their preparation; their use determines the conditions that lead to a decrease in complete oxidation (combustion) of ethylene and reducing the formation of reaction by-products - organo chlorine waste. The aim of the work is to improve the technology of industrial processes of synthesis of 1,2-EDC way oxidative chlorination of ethylene (OCE) as well as improving the technology of this process with a decrease in the amount of organochlorine waste, based on determination of the structure of the reaction centers of catalysts and mechanism of ethylene oxidative chlorination. First, we established effective cooperation mechanism and thermodynamics of heterogeneous reactions of OCE on the structure of surface active groups of the two different types of catalysts Cu (I) (II)/γ-Al2O3 (presumably deposited and permeated type), their connection with the conversion of raw reagents chloride, ethylene, and oxygen, and an increase in yield 1,2-EDC and fewer by-products formed.
The reaction of the oxidative chlorination gives an opportunity in which it is useful to use НСl, namely, to create the productions balanced on a chlorine, i.e., that does not have wastes of НСl or hydrochloric acid. In industry, 1,2-dichloroethane is obtained in the oxidative chlorination ethylene (EOС) using catalysts based on copper chlorides applied to the surface of the media - γ-Al2O3. EOС process is carried out in a fluidized bed of catalyst, and a stationary layer at a temperature in the reaction zone is 200 to 250°C and a pressure of 0.25 to 0.4 MPa. It is possible to vary the qualitative and quantitative compositions of OCE products by using different types of CuCl2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts (with copper chlorides supported onto an alumina surface ‘Harshow’ (X1) and located in the internal pores of the support ‘MEDC-B’), and also, the mechanism of process of catalysis is different.
The chemical interactions between the surface of γ-Al2O3 support and copper chlorides that were described are not ideal, since copper chlorides are not capable of catalyzing OCE without a support. The description of the mechanism of reactions (2) and (3) without the participation of the surface groups of γ-Al2O3 is therefore not entirely reliable.
However, the mechanism (reactions 7 to 9) submitted by M. Flid and I. Kurlyandskaya is imperfect, as enough specifically - schematically describes the reaction of ethylene with the surface groups of the catalyst during the reaction OCE.
In this article, the new interpretation of description of active centers [СuСl2]-1, [СuСl4]2- on the surface of industrial catalyst γ-Al2O3 for the process of OCE is offered. On the basis of quantum-mechanical calculations crystalquasichemical model, an attempt to explain processes that flow on the surface of [СuСl2]-1, [СuСl4]2-/γ-Al2O3 catalyst is done in the industrial conditions OCE in 1,2-EDC.
Pure γ-Al2O3, as a catalyst carrier, firm ‘Harshow’ (USA) S sp =140 m2 g-1; V п, = 0.4 cm3 g-1.
A commercial catalyst X1 CuCl2, applied from muriatic water solution on the γ-Al2O3 surface, in an amount of 5 wt.% by Cu+2,+1, firm ‘Harshow’ (USA) S sp = 120 m2 g-1; V п, = 0.3 cm3 g-1.
A commercial catalyst MEDС-B based γ-Al2O3/CuCl2 containing of 5 wt.% by Cu+2,+1, OXYMAX-B (MEDС-B) firm ‘Sud-Chemie Catalysts’ (Munich, Germany) S sp = 140 m2 g-1; V п, = 0.36 cm3 g-1.
CuCl2 · 2H2O - crystalline hydrate of the main component derived from OCE catalysts.
CuCl2 · 2HСl - hydrochloride of the main component derived from OCE catalysts.
X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained on a DRON-4-07 using the X-ray focus on the Bragg-Brentano. The most suitable for the study was a copper anode radiation (λ = 1.54178 Å). The Nі-fіlter was used in reflected light. The velocity of the goniometer is 1 to 2° min-1. The sample was prepared by applying a layer of powder on vaseline (amorphous), which had previously been coated with a thin layer on a quartz cuvette.
Mass spectrometry was carried out using monopole mass spectrometer (MX-7304A, AO. SELMI, Sumy, Ukraine, 1 to 210 mass range) with electron impact ionization, converted for thermal desorption measurements. Sample (0.1 to 20 mg) was placed at the bottom of a quartz-molybdenum vessel and pressure was reduced to 5⋅10-5 Pa. Samples were heated to 750°С at 0.15°С s-1. Volatile products entered the mass spectrometer ionization chamber where they were ionized and fragmented with electron beam. Desorption rate temperature dependence helps identifying thermal transformation products and provides interaction energy between the copper chloride active phase and γ-Al2O3 carrier.
Results and discussion
Crystalquasichemical structure of catalyst and mechanism of reaction on its basis
where A is tetrahedral positions, B is octahedral positions, □ is crystallochemical vacancy, and O is position of oxygen.
where ● is an excess positive charge, ′′′ is a triple excess negative charge, × is an effective zero charge, and V is a vacancy of aluminum in an octahedral sublattice.
- (a)cation's stoichiometry:(10)
- (b)anion's stoichiometry:(11)
Thus, on the basis of crystalquasichemical model, it is possible to set nature of active centers of OCE catalyst: chemical interaction of CuCl2 with γ-Al2O3 is accompanied by formation of the engrained ions of Cl- or by the increase of vacancies in octahedral sublattice and also including ions of Сu2+, in thetra and octahedral positions of spinel lattice.
According to, a decisive influence will do copper chlorides CuCl2/Cu2Cl2 or H2 [CuCl4], H [CuCl2] that are in the crystal structure of spinel lattice on the surface of γ-Al2O3, after their applying.
The presence of vacancies or root defects in the crystal structure is confirmed by determination of a pycnometer density of CuCl2 sample. In this study, the theoretical X-ray density of CuCl2 (ρtheor. = 3,438.39 kg m-3) is less than the practical density of CuCl2; we found ρprakt. = 3,773.61 kg m-3 that indicates the presence of root defects in the CuCl2 structure (formula I).
Adsorption and chemical processes in the catalytic OCE will pass through the formation of cation and anion vacancies in the spinel structure of the catalyst.
Thus, the absorption reaction of hydrogen chloride on the surface of the cupric chloride catalyst is accompanied by the formation of defects anion vacancies in the position of the oxygen and hydrogen in the placement of tetrahedral and octahedral positions.
Oxygen, as an electron acceptor, being adsorbed on the surface of spinel catalyst, predetermines the origin of acceptor type.
It can be seen that as a result of this interaction, electronic conductivity and vacancies in the anion sublattice appear (oxygen of the lattice involved in the oxidation reaction).
Thus, adsorption of gaseous HCl and O2 gives rise to defects - cationic and anionic vacancies. OCE processes on the catalyst permeated type MEDС-B through a defective condition of CuCl2, which then passes from the initial state that is fully consistent theory of catalysts.
X-ray phase analysis of investigational standards of carrier, catalysts and chlorides of copper
For more detailed data investigations of carrier, catalysts and active phase of CuCl2 were conducted using the X-ray analysis.
In contrast to the X1 catalyst, there is no crystalline CuCl2 reflection at 28.55° for the MEDC-B catalyst (Figure 1). This leads to the conclusion that all active copper chloride is evenly distributed throughout all MEDC-B catalyst particles volume and bound to the Аl2О3 surface.
From the diffraction data, it is clear that the structure of the CuCl2 catalyst surface compounds on the γ-Аl2О3 carrier is different for the X1 and MEDC-B catalysts. At the same time, X1 catalyst 32°, 37°, and 39° intensities differ greatly. This indicates the presence of at least three, and possibly more different compounds between CuCl2 and γ-Аl2О3 on the X1 catalyst surface confirmed by the literature sources. Based on the difference spacings (Δd) of the catalyst carrier d (Al2O3) and catalysts X1 (dX1) and MEDC-B (dMEDC-B), the following conclusions can be drawing.
X1 catalyst , if compared to the γ-Аl2О3 carrier, is characterized by the inter-planar spacing increase for the characteristic 28.55°, 36.55°, 39.25°, 45.9°, and 79.7° diffraction lines, which is an indication of a wedging effect of the excess pure CuCl2 + CuCl crystal phase.
The angular position of the diffraction lines, 2θ corresponding distances between planar, d, and the relative intensities, I/I 0 , sample “MEDC-B”
Intensities І, С-1
Δd = dMEDС-B-dAl2O3
Mass spectrometry of investigational standards of copper chlorides
X1 and the MEDC-B catalysts, the γ-Аl2О3 carrier, active CuCl2 · Н2О, and CuCl2 · 2HСl or Н2[CuCl4] phases were analyzed using temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry to identify individual thermal transformation products on the catalyst surface, the carrier, and the copper chloride active phase.
Taking into account aforesaid, it is possible to speak about confirmation of structure of active centers on the surface of Х1 and MEDC-B catalysts. Besides, HCl and Сl2 release reactions 20 to 22 in the processes of the active phase thermal destruction at the 210 to 235°C working temperature range which confirms the OCE reaction crystalquasichemical mechanism described in reactions 12 to 19 and presented below.
Prognostic mechanism of OCE reactions on the surface of catalysts
From the other side in the previous publications we described, that the formation reactions of metal-complex compounds can run between the superficial groups of carrier and catalyst. On the surface of catalyst of the ethylene oxidized chlorination, three types of complexes between aquated Al2О3 and complex compounds of copper [СuСl4]2-, [СuСl2]- і [СuСl4]- are formed.
According to the data of IR spectral analysis of catalysts with various structures MEDC-B and X1, it can be said that the efficiency of the interaction between carrier and CuCl2/Cu2Cl2 and γ-Al2O3 increases when going over from the applied catalyst X1 type to permeated catalyst type - MEDC-B. This is caused by the technology of their preparation. On this basis, it can be concluded that the preparation technology of MEDC-B catalyst differs from the preparation technology of for type catalyst deposited - X1. Synthesis of microparticles of catalyst [CuCl2]-, [CuCl4]2- and a carrier γ-Al2O3 with the size of 20 to 120 microns leads to more intense interaction between them and to the formation of intercalation active adsorption centers on the surface and in the pores of the catalyst structure MEDC-B (reaction 10). At the same time, the simple application of CuCl2 from chloride solution on the surface of solids γ-Al2O3 (brand X1) the usual adsorption [CuCl4]2-, [СuСl4]- only on the surface of γ-Al2O3 runs. As a result of the interaction surface, only partially coordination bonds between the carrier and the catalyst are formed.
We have noticed that the use of catalysts such as applied-X1 due time (1 to 2 years) takes a significant (50%) loss of catalyst [СuСl4]2-, [СuСl4]- from the surface of the support γ-Al2O3 at its mechanical destruction (erase). It leads to a significant reduction in the effectiveness of the catalyst in the oxidative chlorination of ethylene into 1,2-dichloroethane and requires regeneration. In contrast to, the permeated catalyst type MEDC-B runs 3 to 4 years, essentially, without loss of activity, thus, it can be taken out from the process, store several years, and continue to run the process without losing their efficiency. This directly shows the difference in the structure of different types of catalysts.
For reactions 25 to 26 m, n = 1 to 4.
In, the work expresses the idea of coordinating the interaction of copper with KCl and HCl, at first slow stage of oxygen adsorption, which should lead to a decrease in the effective charge of the cation of copper and lower thermodynamic limitations inherent CuСl2 reaction with oxygen. This agrees with the data to reduce the work function of an electron in the transition from pure CuСl2 to mixtures with KCl. From this, we can predict metal-complex mechanism of catalysis of OCE reaction on the chart by reactions 23 to 26.
Besides, in the practice of industrial use, it is known that on the coated catalysts (type X1), the ratio of basic reagents OСE reaction of НCl:С2Н4:О2 is (1.9 to 2):(1):(0.7 to 0.8). At the same time, in the permeated type of catalysts, this ratio increases toward increasing of hydrogen chloride and ethylene and oxygen reduction - НCl:С2Н4:О2 as (2 to 2.2):(1 to 1.2):(0.5 to 0.6). This promotes an increase in productivity of the main reaction for producing 1,2-EDC, based on the unit area of the catalyst, and is possible only if OСE catalysts have a difference in the structure as shown above. Also previously, we pitverdyly difference in the two types of catalyst. So, at almost the same operating conditions (t ≈ 211°C, 50% load), combustion catalyst for ethylene X1 is 2.45 times more than the catalyst MEDC-B, etc. Based on, these studies concluded that the load on the reactor in which the catalyst MEDC-B can be supported in maximum (twofold greater than the reactor in which the catalyst type X1) without any loss of quality indicators response. As the selectivity increases, which will lead to an increase in the productivity of the entire process OHE.
The structure of ([СuСl4]-2, [СuСl2]-1) active catalyst centers used for ethylene oxidative chlorination on the γ-Аl2О3 carrier was described, namely, two types of catalysts were considered as follows: deposited X1 catalyst and permeated MEDC-B catalyst. It is shown that between CuCl2 and superficial groups, γ-Al2O3 (≡Аl-ОН) passes formation of complex connections with [СuСl4]-2, [СuСl2]-1 for the catalyst of the inflicted type of Х1 and for the catalyst of the permeated type of CuCl2/Cu2Cl2, there will be intercalation in a structure γ-Al2O3, creating in her defects of the stoichiometry after cation.
The new model crystalquasichemical mechanism of catalysis of the ethylene oxidative chlorination reaction into 1,2-dichlorethane was proposed, which can be applied for the explanation of catalysis on the surface of industrial catalyst of the permeated with type of -МЕДС-В that is confirmed by experimental data. The mechanism of catalysis of OCE in 1,2-EDC on the industrial catalysts of the inflicted type of -Х1 well explains the metal-complex approach offered and described by us before.
- Allen JA, Clark AJ: Oxidative chlorination Catalysts. Rev of Pure and Appl Chem 1971, 21: 145.Google Scholar
- Moscow–Kalush: Technological Standards at Plant of Vinyl Chloride Production; 2006.Google Scholar
- Flid MR: Resources-economy, balance by chlorine technology to obtain of the vinyl chloride from primary goods ethane-ethylene: Doctoral Dissertation in Technical Sciences. Moscow: Research institute “Synthesis; 2002.Google Scholar
- Flid MR, Treger YA: Vinyl Chloride: Chemistry and Technology. 1st edition. Moscow, Russia: “Kalvis”; 2008:214–372.Google Scholar
- Kurlyandskaya II, Bakshi YM, Kudryavtseva TF: Kinetics and Catalysis. Moscow: Maik nauka-interperiodica publishing; 1984:598. T.25, № 3 T.25, № 3Google Scholar
- Flid MR, Kurlyandskaya II, Dmitriev Yu K, Babotina MV: Oxidation reaction in the ethylene oxidative chlorination process. In Principles and Methods forAccelerated Catalyst Design and Testing. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2002.Google Scholar
- Tatarchuk ТR, Lisnyak SS: Antistructural electron-hole mechanism of catalysis for spinel. Ukrainian chem J 2007, 12: 87–91.Google Scholar
- Kulyk TV, Barvynchenko VN, Palyanuca BB: Study cinnamic acid interaction with by silica surface stripping mass-spectrography. J Phys Chem 2007, 81: 88–95.Google Scholar
- Drakyn SN, Karapet’yants М.C.h: Structure substance. Moscow: Higher school: Tutorial for high schools; 1978:304.Google Scholar
- Glinka NL: General chemistry. In Tutorial for high schools. Moscow: Integral-press; 2003:728.Google Scholar
- Kurta SA, Mykytyn IM, Kurta OS: The structure of the active centers on the catalyst surface CuCl2/γ-Al2O3. Phys Chem Solids State 2008, 9: 577–582.Google Scholar
- Furman AA: Inorganic chlorides (chemistry and technology). Moscow: Chemistry; 1980:52–67.Google Scholar
- Kurta SA: Catalysis of ethylene oxyclorination into 1,2-diclorethane in the presence of CuCl2/CuCl active centres on the surface of γ-Al2O3. CHEMISTRY & CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY/ISSN: 1996–4196. Lviv Polytechnic 2012, 1: 1–8.Google Scholar
- Little L, Kiselev AV: Infrared spectrums exhausted molecule. Moscow: Peace; 1969:315–320.Google Scholar
- Kurta SA, Mykytyn IM, Kurta OS: Characteristic and activity of oxidative chlorination catalysts of ethylene different origin. Phys Chem Solids 2008, 9: 143–148.Google Scholar
- Kurta SA, Haber NV, Mykytyn IM: Study of industrial catalyst for the ethylene oxidative chlorination. Chem Ind Ukraine 2003, 2: 9–14.Google Scholar
- Kurta SA, Mykytyn IM, Haber NV: Study the dependence of the catalyst activity of ethylene oxidative chlorination from the regeneration conditions. J Appl Chem Russia 2005, 7: 1110–1113.Google Scholar
- Continuous technological schedules for the production of vinyl chloride plant. Kalush: Implementation «Frederick Ude; 1991–2013:480.Google Scholar
- Mykytyn IM: Improving technology oxidative chlorination of ethylene on the catalyst Cu (I) (II) /γ-Al2O3: Candidate’s Dissertation in Technical Sciences. Lviv 2009, 152: 155.Google Scholar
- Shahovtseva GA, Vasilieva IB: Kinetics and mechanism of the hydrogen chloride catalytic oxidation. Kinet katalyz 1970, 9: 49.Google Scholar
- Allen JA: Energetic criteria for oxychlorination catalysts. J Appl Chem 1962, 12: 406.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kurta SA, Mykytyn IM, Khaber NV, Skakun PT: Method of obtaining catalysts for oxidative chlorination of ethylene into 1,2-dichlorethane. UA Patent No. 88262, Bulletin No. 9 (2009) UA Patent No. 88262, Bulletin No. 9 (2009)Google Scholar
- Kurta SM, Haber I, Mykytyn I: Study of industrial catalyst for the ethylene oxidative chlorination. Chem Ind Ukrainy 2003, (55):9–14. № 2 № 2Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.