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Table 5 Example of detection of cancer biomarker by carbon nanotubes

From: Carbon nanotubes: properties, synthesis, purification, and medical applications

Carbon nanotube Biomarker Form of cancer Reference
P-type carbon nanotubes Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostate cancer [98]
Multilabel secondary antibody-nanotube bioconjugates Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostate cancer [99]
Microelectrode arrays modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) Total prostate-specific antigen (T-PSA) Prostate cancer [99]
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes-thionine-chitosan (MWCNTs-THI-CHIT) nanocomposite film Chlorpyrifos residues Many forms [100]
Carbon nanomaterial Carcinoma antigen-125 (CA125) Carcinoma [101]
MWCNT-platinum nanoparticle-doped chitosan (CHIT) AFP Many forms [102]
Poly-l-lysine/hydroxyapatite/carbon nanotube (PLL/HA/CNT) hybrid nanoparticles Carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA19-9) Many forms [103]
MWCN-polysulfone (PSf) polymer Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) Many forms [104]
Multiwalled carbon nanotube-chitosan matrix Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) Many forms [105]
MWCNT-glassy carbon electrode (GCE) Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostate cancer [106]
Nanoparticle (NP) label/immunochromatographic electrochemical biosensor Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostate cancer [107]
SWNT-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostate cancer [107]
Carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNT-FET) Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostate cancer [108]
Carbon nanoparticle (CNP)/poly(ethylene imine) (PEI)-modified screen-printed graphite electrode (CNP-PEI/SPGE) Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Urothelial carcinoma [109]
Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)cobalt(III) (Co(bpy)33+)- MWNTs-Nafion composite film Carcinoma antigen-125 (CA125) Carcinoma [79]
Gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes doped chitosan (GNP/CNT/Ch) film Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Many forms [110]
Multiple enzyme layers assembled multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Many forms [111]