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Table 2 Summary of primary contenders for MRAM, FeRAM, STT-RAM, and PCM technologies

From: Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies

Cell size (F2) Large, approximately 40 to 20 Large, approximately 25 Small, approximately 6 to 20 Small, approximately 8
Storage mechanism Permanent polarization of a ferroelectric material (PZT or SBT) Permanent magnetization of a ferromagnetic material in a MTJ Spin-polarized current applies torque on the magnetic moment Amorphous/polycrystal phases of chalcogenide alloy
Read time (ns) 20 to 80 3 to 20 2 to 20 20 to 50
Write/erase time (ns) 50/50 3 to 20 2 to 20 20/30
Endurance 1012 >1015 >1016 1012
Write power Mid Mid to high Low Low
Nonvolatility Yes Yes Yes Yes
Maturity Limited production Test chips Test chips Test chips
Applications Low density Low density High density High density