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Figure 4 | Nanoscale Research Letters

Figure 4

From: Water transport control in carbon nanotube arrays

Figure 4

Water nanoconfinement increase by electrostatic field application to CNA. (a) Local D of nanoconfined water are plotted as predicted by Equations 4 and 6, while considering different Coulomb charges on carbon atoms for simulating the application of an electrostatic field to CNA, namely qC,i= 0 eV, (b) qC,i= 0.5 eV or (c) qC,i= 1.0 eV. (d) The considered CNA section presents pore diameters distributed with Gaussian probability (μ= 2.0 nm; σ= 0.5 nm). When no electrostatic field is applied, δ ( V 0 ) =0.37nm and 15% of CNA pores contain totally confined water (i.e., θ= 1) with near zero mobility; whereas (e) with qC,i= 0.5 eV, δ ( V 1 ) =0.50nm and the percentage rises to 32% or (f) with qC,i= 1.0 eV, δ ( V 2 ) =0.70nm and the percentage further increases to 67%. h≈ 0.34 nm is the minimum approaching distance between carbon atoms and water molecules.

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