- Nano Express
- Open Access
Efficient p-type dye-sensitized solar cells with all-nano-electrodes: NiCo2S4 mesoporous nanosheet counter electrodes directly converted from NiCo2O4 photocathodes
Nanoscale Research Letters volume 9, Article number: 608 (2014)
We report the successful growth of NiCo2S4 nanosheet films converted from NiCo2O4 nanosheet films on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates by a low-temperature solution process. Low-cost NiCo2S4 and NiCo2O4 nanosheet films were directly used for replacing conventional Pt and NiO as counter electrodes and photocathodes, respectively, to construct all-nano p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) with high performance. Compared to Pt, NiCo2S4 showed higher catalytic activity towards the I-/I3- redox in electrolyte, resulting in an improved photocurrent density up to 2.989 mA/cm2, which is the highest value in reported p-DSSCs. Present p-DSSCs demonstrated a cell efficiency of 0.248 % that is also comparable with typical NiO-based p-DSSCs.
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are typically composed of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors, an iodide/triiodide (I-/I3-) redox electrolyte, and a counter electrode (CE) [1–3]. One research direction to improve conversion efficiency of DSSCs is to construct a tandem DSSC in a sandwich configuration, which combines a photoanode from an n-type DSSC (n-DSSC) and a photocathode from a p-type DSSC (p-DSSC) [4, 5]. In a tandem cell, the overall photovoltage is the sum of two parts, while the photocurrent is limited by the photoelectrode with a smaller current. Recently, the conversion efficiency of n-DSSCs reaches as high as 12% , but the p-DSSCs still suffers from low efficiencies and thus limit the overall efficiency of the tandem DSSCs. Although much attention has been paid to search ideal p-type semiconductor materials and efficient dyes [7–10], the best p-DSSC exhibits efficiency of only 1.3% by utilizing [Co(en)3]2+/3+ redox couple and PMI-6 T-TPA dye . It is worthy to note that few results are devoted to the study of CEs for p-DSSCs, ignoring a feasible approach to further improve the conversion efficiency. The function of CEs is to transfer the electrons (holes) arriving from the external circuit to the redox electrolyte to catalyze the reduction (oxidization) of the redox couple. Generally, platinum (Pt) is the preferred CE material due to its superior electrocatalytic activity, high electrical conductivity, and excellent chemical stability. However, as a noble metal, Pt is one of the most expensive materials and has low abundance in the earth, preventing it from being used for large-scale manufacture of DSSCs.
Since Grätzel's group found that cobalt sulfide (CoS) has excellent catalytic activity for the iodine-based redox couples , great efforts have been made to exploit abundant low-cost substitutes for Pt, including metal sulfides, nitrides, and carbides [13–16] Unfortunately, to date, these reported catalysts can hardly compete with Pt in the performance of DSSCs. As an important class of chalcogenides, semiconducting sulfides have drawn intensive attention due to their distinctive electronic properties, interesting chemical behaviors, and a variety of applications. Particularly, binary metal sulfides (NiS and CoS) have exhibited almost the same conversion efficiency as Pt in DSSCs [17–19]. Compared with binary NiS and CoS, ternary sulfide NiCo2S4 is expected to offer richer redox reactions due to the contributions from both nickel and cobalt ions. For example, NiCo2S4 has demonstrated enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen evolution and polysulfide redox couple [20, 21]. Recent results also showed that NiCo2S4 can be used as CEs of n-type DSSCs, but its efficiencies are lower than those of the Pt-based cells [22, 23].
In this paper, we reported low-cost NiCo2S4 nanosheet (NS) films grown on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate as a high-performance CE for p-DSSCs composed of p-type NiCo2O4 semiconductor photocathode. The NiCo2S4 NS film was synthesized via a facile two-step process including the synthesis of NiCo2O4 NS film on a FTO substrate and then an anion ion exchange process under hydrothermal reaction. When applying the NiCo2S4 as a CE and NiCo2O4 as a photocathode, novel all-nano-p-DSSCs achieved an impressive photocurrent of 2.989 mA/cm2 and cell efficiency of 0.248% versus 1.824 mA/cm2 and 0.158% for Pt under the same conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this efficiency is comparable and even higher than that of NiO-based p-DSSCs with an I-/I3- redox couple.
Synthesis of NiCo2S4 nanosheet films
A two-step hydrothermal process was used to synthesize NiCo2S4 nanosheet films on FTO substrates. In the first step, NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays were synthesized by a modified low-temperature hydrothermal method [24–28]. Typically, 30 mmol of urea and 8 mmol of NH4F were dissolved completely in 30 mL deionized water, followed by the addition of 1 mmol of Ni(NO3)2 · 6H2O and 2 mmol of Co(NO3)2 · 6H2O. The mixture was transferred to a capped bottle with a FTO growth substrate facing down in the precursor at 85°C for 6 h. Once the reaction was finished, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and treated in air at 350°C for 3 h, and the NiCo2O4 nanosheet films were obtained. In the second step, to synthesize NiCo2S4 nanosheet films, the NiCo2O4 nanosheet films were put into Na2S · 9H2O solution (2 mol/L) and reacted in an autoclave at 160°C for 10 h. After the reaction, the samples were rinsed thoroughly with deionized water and dried at 60°C for 5 h in a vacuum oven.
Fabrication of p-DSSC devices
The photocathode was prepared by immersing a NiCo2O4 sample in an ethanol solution containing 0.5 mM of N719 dye (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid)ruthenium(II)) (Solaronix SA, Aubonne, Switzerland) for 3 h, followed by rinsing in ethanol to remove dye absorbed physically, and drying in air. The Pt counter electrode was prepared by spin coating 1 mM of chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6 · 6H2O, Aldrich, 99.9%) in 2-propanol (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA; 99.7%) onto a FTO substrate and then heating at 350°C for 30 min. The as-prepared NiCo2S4 nanosheet films were used directly as counter electrodes. The dye-coated photocathodes were sealed against Pt or NiCo2S4 counter electrodes with hot melt plastic spacers (Solaronix, 60-μm thick). The electrolyte (0.1 M LiI, 0.03 M I2, 0.5 M tetrabutylammonium iodide, and 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in acetonitrile) was introduced into the gap between two electrodes by a syringe. The active area of DSSCs was 0.2 cm2.
The morphology was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM; Hitachi SU8010, Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The microstructure was analyzed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) (FEI Tecnai G2 F20 S-TWIN TMP, FEI, Hillsboro, OR, USA). The phase of products was checked by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD).
Photocurrent-voltage (J-V) characteristics were performed using a Keithley 2400 SourceMeter (Keithley Instruments Inc., Cleveland, OH, USA) under simulated AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm2) provided by a solar light simulator (94043A, Newport Corp., Irvine, CA, USA). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were measured with an Autolab electrochemical workstation (PGSTAT 302 N, Metrohm AG, Utrecht, The Netherlands). CV was carried out in a three-electrode system with different counter electrodes as working electrodes, a Pt foil as counter electrode, and a Ag/Ag+ electrode as reference electrode at a scan rate of 50 mV/s. The electrodes were immersed into an anhydrous acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 M LiClO4, 10 mM LiI, and 1 mM I2. EIS was actualized with a symmetric cell assembled with two identical counter electrodes at open-circuit voltage (Voc) bias under dark condition. The measured frequency ranged from 10 mHz to 1 MHz and the magnitude of the alternative signal was 10 mV.
Results and discussion
Figure 1a shows the XRD pattern of the samples after conversion process. All of the diffraction peaks can be indexed to NiCo2S4 (JCPDF card no. 43–1477). Before the ion exchange process, the diffraction peaks come from NiCo2O4 (Additional file 1: Figure S1). Figure 1b,c,d depicts typical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the NiCo2S4 nanosheets. A low-magnification SEM image in Figure 1b shows a large-scale and uniform nanosheet array, and the corresponding cross-sectional image (Figure 1c) indicates that the nanosheets are vertically grown and have close contact with the FTO substrate. Higher-magnification image in Figure 1d further confirms the sheet-like character. Compared to the NiCo2O4 nanosheets (Additional file 1: Figure S2), the morphology of NiCo2S4 is almost the same and the porous surface is preserved.
The microstructure of the nanosheets is revealed by HRTEM images, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2a,b shows that mesopores are distributed throughout the whole surface of the nanosheets. The size of the mesopores is evaluated by measuring the N2 adsorption-desorption curve (Figure 2c). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of NiCo2S4 nanosheets is as high as 28.5 cm3/g. The pore-size distribution analysis (the inset in Figure 2c) gives an average pore size of 14.6 nm. The lattice fringes and corresponding SAED pattern (Figure 2d) indicate the polycrystalline nature of these nanosheets, and the diffraction rings can be indexed to the (111), (220), (311), (400), and (440) planes of the NiCo2S4 phase, which is consistent with the XRD result.
To characterize the electrocatalytic activity of NiCo2S4 NS and Pt catalysts, CV experiments were carried out in a three-electrode system, as shown in Figure 3a. The redox reactions can be expressed by Equations 1 and 2 .
In the CV curves, the peak-to-peak separation (Epp) and the peak current density are two important parameters for comparing catalytic performance of different CEs . The anodic current density is generally related with the rate of reaction for I- oxidation in p-DSSCs. Compared to Pt CE, the NiCo2S4 NS CE possesses higher anodic and cathodic current densities, indicating that NiCo2S4 NS has higher catalytic activity than Pt. In addition, the Epp value is inversely correlated with the standard electrochemical rate constant of a redox reaction. The Epp of the NiCo2S4 NS CE is 0.420 V, which is almost similar with that (0.408 V) of the Pt CE. Enhanced current density and similar Epp imply that the performance of NiCo2S4 NS CE is comparable to and even better than that of Pt CE.
EIS is a powerful tool to reveal the inherent electrochemical behaviors and the interfacial charge transfer process . To further evaluate the catalytic activities of NiCo2S4 NS and Pt CEs, EIS experiments were performed using symmetric cells fabricated with two identical electrodes (CE/electrolyte/CE), as shown in Figure 3b. The Nyquist plots show two semicircles in the high-frequency (left) and low-frequency (right) regions. According to the equivalent circuit model (the inset of Figure 3b) [32, 33], the high-frequency intercept on the real axis represents the ohmic series resistance (Rs) outside a circuit (substrate resistance and lead connection), and the semicircle arises from the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) at the CE/electrolyte interface and the corresponding phase angle element (CPE). The low-frequency region results from the Nernst diffusion impedance (ZN) of the redox couple in the electrolyte. These parameters were obtained by fitting the Nyquist plots with the Autolab NOVA software, and corresponding results are listed in Table 1. The value of Rs for NiCo2S4 NS is almost the same with that for Pt, because the preparation procedure of two electrodes is similar. The Rct value for NiCo2S4 NS CE is 1.25 Ω cm2, which is lower than that for Pt (7.32 Ω cm2), indicating that the former has much higher catalytic activity than the latter as evidenced by the CV tests. The value of ZN can be calculated using Equation 3 :
where k is the Boltzmann constant, T is the absolute temperature, n is the number of holes involved in the electrochemical oxidation of I- at the electrode, e0 is the elementary charge, c is the concentration of I-, A is the electrode area, ω is the angular frequency, D is the diffusion coefficient of I-, and δ is the thickness of the diffusion layer. The ZN values for NiCo2S4 and Pt CEs are 3.58 and 4.44 Ω cm2, respectively, indicating that the D of I- in the NiCo2S4 cell is larger than that in the Pt cell. For the same electrolyte, a larger D means that the electrode has higher electrocatalytic activity, because faster oxidation of the I- on the surface of catalysts can accelerate the diffusion of I- ions in electrolyte.
Figure 4 shows the J-V curves of the DSSCs with NiCo2S4 NS and Pt CEs at 1-sun (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2) illumination. The detailed photovoltaic parameters, including Voc, short-circuit current density (Jsc), fill factor (FF), and cell efficiency (η) are summarized in Table 1. The DSSC with a NiCo2S4 NS CE produces an excellent cell efficiency of 0.248%, which is higher than that (0.158%) for the Pt-based reference cell. It is worthy to note that present efficiency is comparable and even higher than reported results for p-DSSCs based on typical NiO and other materials, as shown in Additional file 1: Tables S1. The Voc value of a p-DSSC is determined by the difference between the Fermi level in the photocathode and the redox potential of I-/I3-. In the present study, there is no change in the photocathodes and the redox electrolyte; thus, the Voc values of the DSSCs based on NiCo2S4 and Pt CEs remain almost the same. FF is mainly affected by the electron back transfer and charge recombination within devices, and series resistance, etc. Although the FF of NiCo2S4 CEs is a little lower than that of Pt CEs, the Jsc of NiCo2S4 CEs is much higher than that of Pt CEs, resulting in a higher η. The improved Jsc of NiCo2S4-based cell is ascribed to its mesoporous structure, which not only provides large active surface area for I- oxidation but also constructs lots of open channels to facilitate the diffusion of I-/I3- redox species. Both enhanced catalytic reaction and high diffusion rate accelerate the transfer of photogenerated holes and thus an increased current density can be expected.
Low-cost NiCo2S4 NS films with high catalytic activity have been utilized as CEs of p-DSSCs based on NiCo2O4 NS photocathodes. The mesoporous nanosheets provide a large catalytically active area and facilitate the transport of I-/I3- redox in electrolyte. The DSSCs with NiCo2S4 as a CE produce a higher Jsc and η (2.989 mA/cm2 and 0.248%, respectively) than those (1.824 mA/cm2 and 0.158%, respectively) of the cell with a Pt CE. This Jsc can almost match the performance of p-DSSCs, but the Voc is still low. In the future, improving the Voc by doping materials and replacing electrolyte types is an important route. The use of cost-effective NiCo2S4 as an alternative to noble Pt, in combination with a facile fabrication method, may pave the way for low-cost, scalable, and high-efficiency DSSCs.
Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G, Sun L, Kloo L, Pettersson H: Dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem Rev 2010, 110: 6595. 10.1021/cr900356p
Zhang QF, Dandeneau CS, Zhou XY, Cao GZ: ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells. Adv Mater 2009, 21: 4087. 10.1002/adma.200803827
Yu R, Lin QF, Leung SF, Fan ZY: Nanomaterials and nanostructures for efficient light absorption and photovoltaics. Nano Energy 2012, 1: 57.
Gibson EA, Smeigh AL, Pleux LL, Fortage J, Boschloo G, Blart E, Pellegrin Y, Odobel F, Hagfeldt A, Hammarström L: A p-type NiO-based dye-sensitized solar cell with an open-circuit voltage of 0.35 V. Angew Chem Int Ed 2009, 48: 4402. 10.1002/anie.200900423
Kinoshita T, Dy JT, Uchida S, Segawa TK: Wideband dye-sensitized solar cells employing a phosphine-coordinated ruthenium sensitizer. Nat Photonics 2013, 7: 535. 10.1038/nphoton.2013.136
Yella A, Lee HW, Tsao HN, Yi CY, Chandiran AK, Nazeeruddin MK, Diau EWG, Yeh CY, Zakeeruddin SM, Grätzel M: Porphyrin-sensitized solar cell with cobalt (ll/lll)-based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency. Science 2011, 334: 629. 10.1126/science.1209688
Ji Z, Natu G, Huang Z, Wu Y: Linker effect in organic door-accepter dyes for p-type NiO dye sensitized solar cells. Energy Environ Sci 2011, 4: 2818. 10.1039/c1ee01527c
Li L, Gibson EA, Qin P, Boschloo G, Gorlov M, Hagfeldt A, Sun LC: Double-layered NiO photocathodes for p-type DSSCs with record IPCE. Adv Mater 2010, 22: 1759. 10.1002/adma.200903151
Xiong DH, Xu Z, Zeng XW, Zhang WJ, Chen W, Xu XB, Wang MK, Cheng YB: Hydrothermal synthesis of ultrasmall CuCrO2 nanocrystal alternatives to NiO nanoparticles in efficient p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. J Mater Chem 2012, 22: 24760. 10.1039/c2jm35101c
Odobel F, Pellegrin Y: Recent advances in the sensitization of wide-band-gap nanostructured p-type semiconductors. Photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. J Phys Chem Lett 2013, 4: 2551. 10.1021/jz400861v
Powar S, Daeneke T, Ma MT, Fu D, Duffy NW, Götz G, Weidelener M, Mishra A, Bäuerle P, Spiccia L, Bach U: Stable dye-sensitized solar cell electrolytes based on cobalt(II)/(III) complexes of a hexadentate pyridyl ligand. Angew Chem Int Ed 2013, 52: 602. 10.1002/anie.201206219
Wang MK, Anghel AM, Marsan B, Ha NLC, Pootrakulchote N, Zakeeruddin SM, Grätzel M: CoS supersedes Pt as efficient electrocatalyst for trііodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131: 15976. 10.1021/ja905970y
Wu MX, Lin X, Hagfeldt A, Ma TL: A novel catalyst of WO2nanorod for the counter electrode of dye - sensitized solar cells . Chem Commun 2011, 47: 4535. 10.1039/c1cc10638d
Sun HC, Qin D, Huang SQ, Guo XZ, Li DM, Luo YH, Meng QB: Dye-sensitized solar cells with NiS counter electrodes electrodeposited by a potential reversal technique. Energy Environ Sci 2011, 4: 2630. 10.1039/c0ee00791a
Jang JS, Ham DJ, Ramasamy E, Lee J, Lee LS: Platinum-free tungsten carbides as an efficient counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells. Chem Commun 2010, 46: 8600. 10.1039/c0cc02247k
Wu MX, Lin X, Hagfeldt A, Ma TL: Low-cost molybdenum carbide and tungsten carbide counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Angew Chem Int Ed 2011, 50: 3520. 10.1002/anie.201006635
Zhou WJ, Wu XJ, Cao XH, Huang X, Tan CL, Tian J, Liu H, Wang JY, Zhang H: Ni3S2nanorods / Ni foam composite electrode with low overpotential for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution . Energy Environ Sci 2013, 6: 2921. 10.1039/c3ee41572d
Li ZQ, Gong F, Zhou G, Wang ZS: NiS2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. J Phys Chem C 2013, 117: 6561.
Kung CW, Chen HW, Lin CY, Huang KC, Vittal R, Ho KC: CoS acicular nanorod arrays for the counter electrode of an efficient dye-sensitized solar cell. ACS Nano 2012, 6: 7016. 10.1021/nn302063s
Xiao JW, Zeng XW, Chen W, Xiao F, Wang S: High electrocatalytic activity of self-standing hollow NiCo2S4 single crystalline nanorod arrays towards sulfide redox shuttles in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. Chem Commun 2013, 49: 11734. 10.1039/c3cc44242j
Li Y, Hasin P, Wu Y: Ni x Co3-xO4 nanowire arrays for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution. Adv Mater 2010, 22: 1926. 10.1002/adma.200903896
Lin JY, Chou SW: Highly transparent NiCo2S4 thin film as an effective catalyst toward triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells. Electrochem Commun 2013, 37: 11.
Banerjee A, Upadhyay KK, Bhatnagar S, Tathavadekar M, Bansode U, Agarkar S, Ogale SB: Nickel cobalt sulfide nanoneedle array as an effective alternative to Pt as a counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. RSC Advances 2014, 4: 8289. 10.1039/c3ra45981k
Shi ZW, Lu H, Liu Q, Deng KM, Xu LY, Zou RJ, Hu JQ, Bando Y, Golberg D, Li L: NiCo2O4 nanostructures as a promising alternative for NiO in p -type dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency of 0.785%. Energy Technol 2014, 2: 517. 10.1002/ente.201400013
Zhang G, Lou XW: General solution growth of mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheets on various conductive substrates as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors. Adv Mater 2013, 25: 976. 10.1002/adma.201204128
Yuan C, Li J, Hou L, Zhang X, Shen L, Lou XW: Ultrathin mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheets supported on Ni foam as advanced electrodes for supercapacitors. Adv Mater 2012, 22: 4592.
Wang Q, Liu B, Wang X, Ran S, Wang L, Chen D, Shen GZ: Morphology evolution of urchin-like NiCo2O4 nanostructures and their applications as pseudocapacitors and photoelectrochemical cells. J Mater Chem 2012, 22: 21647. 10.1039/c2jm34705a
Wang Q, Wang X, Liu B, Yu G, Hou X, Chen D, Shen GZ: NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays supported on Ni foam for high-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors. J Mater Chem A 2013, 1: 2468. 10.1039/c2ta01283a
Gong F, Wang H, Xu X, Zhou G, Wang ZS: In situ growth of Co0.85Se and Ni0.85Se on conductive substrates as high-performance counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. J Am Chem Soc 2012, 134: 10953. 10.1021/ja303034w
Wang H, Sun K, Tao F, Stacchiola DJ, Hu YH: 3D honeycomb-like structured graphene and its high efficiency as a counter-electrode catalyst for dye-sensitized solar cells. Angew Chem Int Ed 2013, 52: 9210. 10.1002/anie.201303497
Guai GH, Leiw MY, Ng CM, Li CM: Sulfur-doped nickel oxide thin film as an alternative to pt for dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes. Adv Energy Mater 2012, 2: 334. 10.1002/aenm.201100582
Bai Y, Yu H, Li Z, Amal R, Lu GQ, Wang LZ: In situ growth of a ZnO nanowire network within a TiO2 nanoparticle film for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cell performance. Adv Mater 2012, 24: 5850. 10.1002/adma.201201992
Ye MD, Zheng DJ, Lv MQ, Chen C, Lin CJ, Lin ZQ: Hierarchically structured nanotubes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Adv Mater 2013, 25: 3039. 10.1002/adma.201205274
Gong F, Xu X, Li ZQ, Zhou G, Wang ZS: NiSe2 as an efficient electrocatalyst for a Pt-free counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem Commun 2013, 49: 1437. 10.1039/c2cc38621f
We acknowledge the support from the National Natural Science Foundation (51422206, 51372159, 11304217), 1000 Youth Talents Plan, and Jiangsu Shuangchuang Plan, a project supported by Jiangsu Scientific and Technology Committee for Distinguished Young Scholars (BK20140009) and funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
ZS participated in the design of experiments and drafted the manuscript. HL participated in the IV analysis and revision of the manuscript. QL participated in the analysis of the CV data. FC participated in the experiment of the XRD measurements and data analysis. JG participated in the measurements and analysis of TEM. KD participated in the collection of SEM. LL participated in the design and analysis of data and revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Electronic supplementary material
Additional file 1: Supporting information. This file contains XRD pattern and SEM images of NiCo2O4 nanosheets and comparison of photovoltaic parameters for the present and previously reported p-DSSCs. (DOCX 235 KB)
Authors’ original submitted files for images
Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images.
About this article
Cite this article
Shi, Z., Lu, H., Liu, Q. et al. Efficient p-type dye-sensitized solar cells with all-nano-electrodes: NiCo2S4 mesoporous nanosheet counter electrodes directly converted from NiCo2O4 photocathodes. Nanoscale Res Lett 9, 608 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/1556-276X-9-608
- Dye-sensitized solar cells
- Counter electrodes
- Ternary sulfides