Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity
© Aramwit et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 26 November 2013
Accepted: 10 February 2014
Published: 17 February 2014
The Erratum to this article has been published in Nanoscale Research Letters 2014 9:136
In this study, a ‘green chemistry’ approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO− and NH2 + groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications.
Over the last decades, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in catalytic, optic, electronic, and other applications due to their unique size-dependent properties and high surface-to-volume ratio, which are significantly different from those of the corresponding bulk materials . Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the effective anti-bacterial/anti-fungal activity of AgNPs [2–5]. In fact, it is well known that Ag ions (Ag+) and Ag-based compounds have strong biocidal effects on as many as 12 species of bacteria including Escherichia coli. Das et al. showed that AgNPs with a 12-nm size could be used as effective growth inhibitors against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Kim et al. reported that yeast and E. coli were inhibited at the low concentration of AgNPs . Furthermore, silver exhibits low toxicity and minimal risk in the human body .
AgNPs can be synthesized by a variety of methods such as reverse micelle process , chemical reduction , microwave dielectric heating reduction , ultrasonic irradiation , radiolysis , solvothermal synthesis , electrochemical synthesis , bacterial synthesis , etc. Among these methods, chemical reduction is one of the easiest and widely used techniques. Solomon et al. have reported the chemical reduction of silver nitrate using sodium borohydride to synthesize stable and non-aggregated AgNPs . Sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium citrate, and hydrazine hydrate solution were also used as stabilizing and reducing agents to prepare AgNPs with high anti-microbial activity against gram-positive bacteria . However, these chemical methods use organic solvents and toxic reducing agents, consume high energy, and require difficult waste treatment. Recently, researchers have an increasing awareness about the environment. The use of toxic chemicals and solvents should be avoided, contributing to the emergence of ‘green chemistry’ for the synthesis of AgNPs [19–23]. Utilizations of environmentally friendly or naturally derived materials are some of the key issues of a green synthesis strategy [19–23]. Various types of microorganisms have been reported to synthesize AgNPs either intra- or extracellularly [19, 20]. Also, stable AgNPs could be synthesized by using polysaccharides such as starch as both reducing and stabilizing agents [21, 22]. AgNPs were synthesized by autoclaving a solution of AgNO3 and starch . Starch undergoes hydrothermal hydrolysis in an autoclave to produce glucose. Thus, starch can be used instead of pure glucose for the synthesis of AgNPs. In addition to polysaccharides, proteins, which are naturally abundant non-toxic materials and available from various sources, are introduced for AgNP synthesis. Zhao et al. have synthesized a AgNP-embedded soy protein isolation (SPI) film . The whole reaction process was carried out by exposure to white light at ambient temperature, which is highly energy-efficient and eco-friendly. Moreover, the AgNP-embedded SPI film showed an effective anti-microbial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Sasikala et al. have introduced the capabilities of the miracle bean soybean Glycine max as a stabilizer in the production of AgNPs . Irwin et al. reported that keratin-stabilized AgNPs at 0.3 to 3 μM completely inhibited the growth of an equivalent volume of ca. 103 to 104 colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) of S. aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, or E. coli.
In this study, silk sericin protein was introduced for AgNP synthesis. Silk sericin (SS) is a water-soluble protein extracted from silkworms. Currently, SS is considered as a waste product from the textile industry. It is highly hydrophilic with strong polar side chains such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino groups. Recently, SS has been widely used in biomaterial applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-oxidative and bioactive activities. We herein introduced SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent for AgNP synthesis. Due to the results, SS can be used instead of other natural products to easily produce AgNPs. The effects of reaction conditions including the pH value and concentrations of SS and silver nitrate (AgNO3) solutions on AgNP formation were investigated via a UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and colorimeter. The size and zeta potential of the SS-capped AgNPs were determined by using Zetasizer. The chemical structure of the SS-capped AgNPs was analyzed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The anti-microbial activity of the SS-capped AgNPs against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was evaluated.
Fresh bivoltine white-shell cocoons of Bombyx mori produced in a controlled environment were kindly supplied by Chul Thai Silk Co., Ltd. (Petchaboon province, Thailand). Silver nitrate (AgNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and other chemicals were of analytical grade and used without further purification.
Preparation of silk sericin solution
The silkworm cocoons were cut into small pieces, and SS was extracted using a high-temperature and high-pressure degumming technique . Briefly, the cocoons were put into deionized (DI) water and then autoclaved at 120°C for 60 min. After filtration through a filter paper to remove fibroin fibers, the SS solution was concentrated until the desired concentration was achieved (approximately 7 wt%, measured by the BCA protein assay kit, Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). This SS solution was used as a stock solution. The molecular weight of the SS obtained ranged from 25 to 150 kDa, as reported previously .
Synthesis of SS-capped AgNPs
The SS solution was diluted to 5, 10, and 20 mg/mL, and NaOH was added to adjust the pH of the SS solution to be 9 and 11. The prepared SS solution was added to the AgNO3 solution (1, 5, and 10 mM) under constant stirring. The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The transparent solution which turned yellow indicated the formation of SS-capped AgNPs.
Characterization of SS-capped AgNPs
UV-Vis absorption spectra of the SS-capped AgNPs were measured using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer (PerkinElmer LAMBDA 25, Waltham, MA, USA), from 300 to 600 nm, to evaluate the formation and yield of SS-capped AgNPs. For the stability test, the SS-capped AgNP suspension was stored at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and the yield was analyzed at each pre-determined time. The concentrations of formed AgNPs were obtained from the calibration method. To construct the calibration curve, AgNP colloid standards at various initial AgNO3 concentrations were prepared by reducing AgNO3 with NaBH4 in the SS solution. The amount of NaBH4 used in the reaction was excessive, and the dissolved silver ions completely transformed into metallic silver. The characteristic plasmon absorption at 420 nm was plotted against the initial concentration of AgNO3 and employed as a calibration curve. The plasmon absorption intensity at 420 nm directly related to the amount of AgNPs formed. The color of the SS-capped AgNP suspension was determined using a colorimeter (Konica Minolta CR 400, Chiyoda-ku, Japan). The CIELab scale was used; lightness (L*) and chromaticity parameter b* (yellow-blue) were measured. The size and zeta potential of SS-capped AgNPs were determined by Zetasizer Nano Range (Malvern Instruments Ltd, Malvern, UK). A drop of SS-capped AgNPs was placed on carbon-coated copper grids and observed on TEM (Hitachi H-7650, Chiyoda-ku, Japan).
The chemical structure of the SS-capped AgNPs was analyzed by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. Briefly, the SS-capped AgNP suspension was dropped on a glass slide and left to dry overnight under an ambient condition. The ATR spectrum was collected by a germanium micro-internal reflective element (IRE) attached onto the built-in × 15 infrared objective. A sufficient contact between the tip of the IRE and the sample was achieved by raising the sample stage towards the IRE. The degree of contact was monitored by a built-in pressure sensor on the sample stage. The ATR spectra were collected via a continuum infrared microscope attached to a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) using a 256-scan co-addition at a resolution of 4 cm−1 with a built-in nitrogen-cooled mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) detector.
Evaluation of anti-bacterial activities of SS-capped AgNPs
All bacterial experiments were performed in a laminar flow hood according to the full aseptic technique protocol. The researchers wore a cap, a mask, and gloves during the experiment to prevent the contamination of harmful bacteria. The anti-bacterial activities of SS-capped AgNPs were analyzed by broth dilution method against six different pathogenic microorganisms including gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) and gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii). The pure cultures of bacteria were subcultured on Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). Each strain was inoculated into soybean casein digest (tryptic soy broth (TSB)) for 4 to 6 h at 37°C. The growth cultures were diluted to 5 × 105 CFU/mL. AgNP suspension (1 mL) was added to the mixture of TSB (1 mL) and the bacterial culture (1 mL). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was examined. It is expressed as the lowest dilution which inhibited growth, judged by the lack of turbidity in the tube. After the bacterial experiment, the used cap, mask, and gloves were autoclaved before disposal. The flasks were autoclaved for sterilization, and the area was disinfected with 70% ethanol.
All the results were statistically analyzed by the unpaired Student's t test, and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Data were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation.
Results and discussion
Yield, size, and zeta potential of SS-capped AgNPs synthesized from SS and AgNO 3 at pH 11
Yield of AgNPs (mM)
Zeta potential (mV)
5 mg/mL SS + 1 mM AgNO3
95.8 ± 0.9
−23.7 ± 0.6
5 mg/mL SS + 5 mM AgNO3
48.8 ± 0.1*
−25.2 ± 0.2
5 mg/mL SS + 10 mM AgNO3
55.2 ± 0.6*
−17.1 ± 0.6
10 mg/mL SS + 1 mM AgNO3
117.0 ± 6.8
−22.0 ± 0.1
10 mg/mL SS + 5 mM AgNO3
48.1 ± 0.2*
−25.5 ± 0.9
10 mg/mL SS + 10 mM AgNO3
63.6 ± 1.6*
−18.8 ± 2.3
Color quantitative results of SS-capped AgNP suspension synthesized from SS and AgNO 3 at pH 11
5 mg/mL SS + 5 mM AgNO3
17.7 ± 0.0
0.3 ± 0.0
10 mg/mL SS + 5 mM AgNO3
17.7 ± 0.4
0.4 ± 0.1
Yield of SS-capped AgNPs synthesized from SS and AgNO 3 at pH 11
Yield of AgNPs (mM)
5 mg/mL SS + 5 mM AgNO3
10 mg/mL SS + 5 mM AgNO3
15 mg/mL SS + 5 mM AgNO3
20 mg/mL SS + 5 mM AgNO3
Infrared band assignment of silk sericin and SS-capped AgNPs
IR band (cm−1)
1,700 to 1,600
Amide I (C = O stretching vibration)
1,560 to 1,500
Amide II (N-H bending and C-N stretching vibration)
1,300 to 1,200
Amide III (C-N-H in-plane bending and C-N stretching vibration)
1,451, 1,404, 1,353
Free carboxylate groups (COO− stretching vibration)
Anti-bacterial activity of SS-capped AgNPs (5 mg/mL SS + 5 mM AgNO 3 ) against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
Concentration of SS-capped AgNPs (mM)
SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized under an alkaline condition (pH 11) via a green chemistry approach using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The higher concentrations of SS and AgNO3 increased the yield of SS-capped AgNPs. Sizes of the SS-capped AgNPs were around 48 to 117 nm. The FT-IR result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO− and NH2+ groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. We therefore introduced the SS-capped AgNPs as a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications.
This research was supported by Thailand Research Fund (TRF).
- Feldheim DL, Foss CA: Metal Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2002.Google Scholar
- Lok CN, Ho CM, Chen R, He QY, Yu WY, Sun H, Tam PKH, Chiu JF, Che CM: Proteomic analysis of the mode of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. J Proteome Res 2006, 5: 916–924. 10.1021/pr0504079View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Das R, Gang S, Nath SS: Preparation and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles. J Biomater Nanobiotechnol 2011, 2: 472–475. 10.4236/jbnb.2011.24057View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li WR, Xie XB, Shi QS, Zeng HY, OU-Yang YS, Chen YB: Antibacterial activity and mechanism of silver nanoparticles on Escherichia coli . Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2010, 85: 1115–1122. 10.1007/s00253-009-2159-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chao L, Xiansong W, Feng C, Chunlei Z, Xiao Z, Kan W, Xiangcui D: The antifungal activity of graphene oxide–silver nanocomposites. Biomaterials 2013, 34: 3882–3890. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.02.001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao G, Stevens SE Jr: Multiple parameters for the comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to the silver ion. Biometals 1998, 11: 27–32. 10.1023/A:1009253223055View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim JS, Kuk E, Yu KN, Kim JH, Park SJ, Lee HJ, Kim SH, Park YK, Park YH, Hwang CY, Kim YK, Lee YS, Jeong DH, Cho MH: Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine 2007, 3: 95–101. 10.1016/j.nano.2006.12.001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lansdown AB: Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Curr Probl Dermatol 2006, 33: 17–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xie Y, Ye R, Liu H: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in reverse micelles stabilized by natural biosurfactant. Colloids Surfaces A 2006, 279: 75–178.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pillai ZS, Kamat PV: What factors control the size and shape of silver nanoparticles in the citrate ion reduction method. J Phys Chem B 2004, 108: 945–951. 10.1021/jp037018rView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Patel K, Kapoor S, Dave DP, Murherjee T: Phenomenon is related to size of colloidal silver particles. J Chem Sci 2005, 117: 53–60. 10.1007/BF02704361View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Salkar RA, Jeevanandam P, Aruna ST, Koltypin Y, Gedanken A: The sonochemical preparation of amorphous silver nanoparticles. J Mater Chem 1999, 9: 1333–1335. 10.1039/a900568dView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Soroushian B, Lampre I, Belloni J, Mostafavi M: Radiolysis of silver ion solutions in ethylene glycol: solvated electron and radical scavenging yields. Radiat Phys Chem 2005, 72: 111–118. 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2004.02.009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Starowicz M, Stypula B, Banaœ J: Electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Electrochem Commun 2006, 8: 227–230. 10.1016/j.elecom.2005.11.018View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu JJ, Liao XH, Zhao XN, Hen HY: Preparation of silver nanorods by electrochemical methods. Mater Lett 2001, 49: 91–95. 10.1016/S0167-577X(00)00349-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thomas R, Viswan A, Mathew J, Radhakrishnan EK: Evaluation of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by a novel strain of marine Pseudomonas sp. Nano Biomed Eng 2012, 4: 139–143.Google Scholar
- Solomon SD, Bahadory M, Jeyarajasingam AV, Rutkowsky SA, Boritz C: Synthesis and study of silver nanoparticles. J Chem Educ 2007, 84: 322–325. 10.1021/ed084p322View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guzmán MG, Dille J, Godet S: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method and their antibacterial activity. Int J Chem Biol Eng 2009, 2: 104–111.Google Scholar
- Rani PU, Rajasekharreddy P: Green synthesis of silver-protein (core–shell) nanoparticles using Piper betle L. leaf extract and its ecotoxicological studies on Daphnia magna. Colloids Surfaces A 2011, 389: 188–194. 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2011.08.028View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li G, He D, Qian Y, Guan B, Gao S, Cui Y, Yokoyama K, Wang L: Fungus-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus terreus. Int J Mol Sci 2012, 13: 466–476.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vigneshwaran N, Nachane RP, Balasubramanya RH, Varadarajan PV: A novel one-pot ‘green’ synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using soluble starch. Carbohyd Res 2006, 341: 2012–2018. 10.1016/j.carres.2006.04.042View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oluwafemi OS, Vuyelwa N, Scriba M, Songca SP: Green controlled synthesis of monodispersed, stable and smaller sized starch-capped silver nanoparticles. Mater Lett 2013, 106: 332–336.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Senthamilselvi S, Kumar P, Prabha AL, Govindaraju M: Green simplistic biosynthesis of anti-bacterial silver nanoparticles using Annona squamosa leaf extract. Nano Biomed Eng 2013, 5: 102–106.Google Scholar
- Zhao S, Yao J, Fei X, Shao Z, Chen X: An antimicrobial film by embedding in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles in soy protein isolate. Mater Lett 2013, 95: 142–144.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sasikala D, Govindaraju K, Tamilselvan S, Singaravelu G: Soybean protein: a natural source for the production of green silver nanoparticles. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 2012, 17: 1176–1181. 10.1007/s12257-012-0021-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Irwin P, Martin J, Nguyen LH, He Y, Gehring A, Chen CY: Antimicrobial activity of spherical silver nanoparticles prepared using a biocompatible macromolecular capping agent: evidence for induction of a greatly prolonged bacterial lag phase. J Nanobiotechnology 2010, 8: 34. 10.1186/1477-3155-8-34View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee K, Kweon H, Yeo JH, Woo SO, Lee YW, Cho CS, Kim KH, Park YH: Effect of methyl alcohol on the morphology and conformational characteristics of silk sericin. Int J Biol Macromol 2003, 33: 75–80. 10.1016/S0141-8130(03)00069-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aramwit P, Kanokpanont S, Nakpheng T, Srichana T: The effect of sericin from various extraction methods on cell viability and collagen production. Int J Mol Sci 2010, 11: 2200–2211. 10.3390/ijms11052200View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tongsakul D, Wongravee K, Thammacharoen C, Ekgasit S: Enhancement of the reduction efficiency of soluble starch for platinum nanoparticles synthesis. Carbohyd Res 2012, 357: 90–97.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Knill CJ, Kennedy JF: Degradation of cellulose under alkaline conditions. Carbohydr Polym 2003, 51: 281–300. 10.1016/S0144-8617(02)00183-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Clarke MA, Edye LA, Eggleston G: Advances in Carbohydrate and Biochemistry. San Diego: Academic; 1997:449–455.Google Scholar
- Shin Y, Bae IT, Exarhos GJ: Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into nanowires in aqueous glucose solutions. Colloids Surface A 2009, 348: 191–195. 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2009.07.013View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khan MR, Tsukada M, Zhang X, Morikawa H: Preparation and characterization of electrospun nanofibers based on silk sericin powders. J Mater Sci 2013, 48: 3731–3736. 10.1007/s10853-013-7171-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Socrates G: Infrared and Raman Characteristic Group Frequencies: Table and Chart. Chichester: Wiley; 2000.Google Scholar
- Rafey A, Shrivastavaa KBL, Iqbal SA, Khan Z: Growth of Ag-nanoparticles using aspartic acid in aqueous solutions. J Colloid Interf Sci 2011, 354: 190–195. 10.1016/j.jcis.2010.10.046View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dong Q, Su H, Zhang D: In situ depositing silver nanoclusters on silk fibroin fibers supports by a novel biotemplate redox technique at room temperature. J Phys Chem B 2005, 109: 17429–17434. 10.1021/jp052826zView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhong Z, Patskovskyy S, Bouvrette P, Luong JHT, Gedanken A: The surface chemistry of Au colloids and their interactions with functional amino acids. J Phys Chem B 2004, 108: 4046–4052. 10.1021/jp037056aView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song J, Roh J, Lee I, Jang J: Low temperature aqueous phase synthesis of silver/silver chloride plasmonic nanoparticles as visible light photocatalysts. Dalton Trans 2013, 42: 13897–13904. 10.1039/c3dt51343bView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.