Fluorescent images and bar graphs of AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. (a) Photographs represent TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 activation after AgNp and AgPyNp treatment in RAW264.7 cells, and the scale bar represents 15 μm. Fluorescent images were taken at 525 nm (TNF-α), 565 nm (NF-κB p65), or 625 nm (NF-κB p50). (b) Bar graphs represent the mean ± SD intensity values of triplicate treatment groups to analyse the ROS generation in AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. Error bars represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Student’s t-test was used to determine the statistical significance: ***P < 0.001. Presented data were combined from at least three experiments. AgNPs, silver nanoparticles; AgPyNPs, nanosilver-pyridoxine complexes; BF, bright field.