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Figure 1 | Nanoscale Research Letters

Figure 1

From: Graphene-based optical modulators

Figure 1

Optical absorption in graphene. (a) Optical absorption of approximately 2.3% for pristine graphene from ref. [13]. (Inset) Graphene crystallites were placed over a metal with several apertures. (b) For vertical incident light, an optical absorption of approximately 2.3% can be achieved by single-layer graphene. (c) By integrating graphene along with a waveguide (i.e., light transmits horizontally through graphene), large light-graphene interaction and higher absorption can be achieved. Reproduced from ref. [14].

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