Synthesis of general SiNWs and kinked SiNWs. (a) SEM image of a general silicon nanowire grown on Si (100) substrates. The faceting along the side facets of SiNWs is clearly visible as well as the gold (Au) catalyst at (b), TEM image of general SiNWs and inset showed SAED pattern images of SiNWS. (c) SEM image of a kinked SiNWS on Si (100) substrate with high flow rate of hydrogen (3,000 sccm∙min−1). (d) TEM image shows that kinked SiNWs were grown which kink away of the growth direction of NWs from  direction. (e-g), HRTEM image of the same kinked SiNWs, showing initial growth direction , kinking away from <101 > to the other <101 > directions.