AFM images of individual endothelial, THP-1 and SMC cells. (a) Human Brachiocephalic Artery Endothelial Cell (HBcAEC-ECACC™) isolated from normal brachiocephalic arteries. (b) THP-1 (ATCC®TIB-202™) cell derived from a 1-year-old boy with leukemia. (c) Human Brachiocephalic Artery SMC cell (HBcASMC ECACC™) isolated from normal brachiocephalic arteries. (d) AFM image of endothelial cell at higher magnification. The statistical surface parameters of individual cells and healthy arteries differ significantly, Additional file 3, suggesting dissimilar nanodrug uptake efficiency between tissue and individual cell.