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Fig. 1 | Nanoscale Research Letters

Fig. 1

From: Orientation-Controllable ZnO Nanorod Array Using Imprinting Method for Maximum Light Utilization in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Fig. 1

a Schematic of photoanode fabrication: simultaneous process of patterning a TiO2 film and transferring the ZnO NRs while imprinting. SEM images: b the mold with periodically aligned vertical ZnO NRs on the GaN substrate. The inset is a photo image of the whole ZnO NR mold (a quarter size of 2-in. GaN wafer). c The transferred tilted ZnO NR array on the TiO2 film. The inset shows a dye-adsorbed ZNL/TiO2 photoanode in an area of 4 cm2. d A defect area, where ZnO NRs were not transferred on the TiO2 film, showing hole trenches. e The holey TiO2 film, which was achieved by complete wet etching of the embedded ZnO NRs with an acidic solution. All scale bars, 2 μm

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