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Fig. 7 | Nanoscale Research Letters

Fig. 7

From: Three-Dimensional Metal-Oxide Nanohelix Arrays Fabricated by Oblique Angle Deposition: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications

Fig. 7

Passive optical components. a Cross-sectional SEM image of GRIN ITO AR coating with modified-quintic refractive index profile on a GaInN LED. The GRIN ITO AR coating consists of six ITO layers with pre-determined refractive indices for optimum AR characteristics [65]. b Average light-output power of 30 representative top-emitting GaInN LED chips with dense ITO coating and with GRIN ITO AR contact [65]. c Schematic illustration of a phosphor-converted dichroic white LED with a DFC and the structure of the DFC consisting of an alternating stack of high-refractive-index (dense) ITO and low-refractive-index (porous) ITO. Cross-sectional SEM image shows five-layer DFCs made of a single material, ITO. The measured refractive indices of dense (n = 2.08) and porous (n = 1.35) ITO layers by ellipsometry are shown as a function of height from the substrate [66]. d Measured spectra of white LEDs with 200-nm-thick ITO contact, three-layer, and five-layer DFCs using the same phosphor layer for all three configurations [66]

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