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Table 2 Summary of membrane characteristics from previous studies

From: Characterization and Evaluation of Reverse Osmosis Membranes Modified with Ag2O Nanoparticles to Improve Performance

Nanoparticle type Method Modified membrane properties Salt rejection Flux (L/m2 h) Ref.
MgTiO3 nanoparticles IP (MPD/TMC) Enhanced surface hydrophilicity, increase roughness 98 45 [46]
MgTiO3 in TMC/hexane
Zeolite nanoparticles IP (MPD/TMC) Smoother, hydrophilic, and negatively charged surfaces 93 40.2 [47]
NaA in TMC/hexane
Silica nanoparticles IP (MPD/TMC) Silica particle interacting well with the polyamide 91 27.2 [48]
Silica in MPD/water
Silica nanoparticles IP (MPD/TMC) Tunable pore radius and higher thermal stability 71.7 40.8 [49]
Silica in MPD/water
Silver nanoparticles IP (MPD/BTC) Higher anti-biofouling effect 97 94 [50]
Silver in BTC
TiO2 nanoparticles The neat TFC membrane was dipped in the transparent TiO2 colloidal solution Higher photocatalytic bactericidal efficiency under UV light 96.6 24.5 [51]
TiO2 nanoparticles IP (MPD/TMC) Enhanced surface hydrophilicity 95 9.1 [52]
TiO2 in TMC and HCFC
Zeolite nanoparticles IP (MPD/TMC) Increase roughness and contact angle 90.5 43.7 [53]
NaY in TMC/hexane
Al2O3 nanoparticles IP (MPD/TMC) Enhanced surface hydrophilicity 88 5 [54]
Al2O3 in TMC/hexane