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Table 5 Summary of carbon nanoparticles in vivo accumulation with emphasis on exposure routes

From: Biodistribution of a High Dose of Diamond, Graphite, and Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles After Multiple Intraperitoneal Injections in Rats

Nanoparticles Original nanoparticle name Exposure route Investigated animal Nanoparticles present in organs Reference
Graphene PEGylated nanographene sheets wih Cy7 Intravenous BALB/c mice Kidney and excreted in urine [16]
Graphene oxide 125I-nGO-PEG Intraperitoneal BALB/c mice Liver, spleen [17]
125I-RGO-PEG
125I-nRGO-PEG
Graphene oxide 125I-nGO-PEG Intragastrically BALB/c mice Stomach, intestine [17]
125I-RGO-PEG
125I-nRGO-PEG
Graphene oxide 125I-nGO-PEG Intravenous BALB/c mice Liver, spleen [18]
125I-RGO-PEG
125I-nRGO-PEG
Graphene oxide Graphene oxide Intravenous BALB/c mice Lungs, liver [33]
Graphene oxide Graphene oxide + Tween 80 Intravenous BALB/c mice Liver [33]
Graphene oxide GO Intravitreal Japanese white rabbit Eyeball [19]
Graphene oxide 125I-NGS-PEG Intravenous BALB/c mice Liver, spleen, and excreted in urine [39]
Graphite nanoparticles 60Co-Co/graphitic-shell nanocrystals Intravenous Kongming white mice Liver, lungs, spleen [25]
Graphite nanoparticles Graphite nanoparticles Intragastrically Caenorhabditis elegans Along the nematode body [15]
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes MWCNT Intraperitoneal Swiss-Webster mice Liver [35]
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes 125I-tau-MWNTs Intravenous Kunming mice Liver, lungs, spleen [27]
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes 125I-Tween-MWNTs Intravenous Kunming mice Liver, lungs, spleen, stomach, kidney, large and small intestine [27]
Nanodiamond 188Re-NDs Intratracheal Kun Ming mice Bones, heart, liver, lungs, spleen [23]
Nanodiamond NDs-4 Intratracheal ICR mice Lungs [12]
NDs-50
Nanodiamond 125I-NDs Intravenous ICR mice Liver, lungs, spleen [24]
Nanodiamond 18F-DNPs Intravenous Sprague-Dawley rats Liver, lungs, spleen and excreted in urine [13]
Nanodiamond 18F-DNPs Intravenous Swiss CD1 mice Liver, lungs, spleen and excreted in urine [13]
Nanodiamond NDX (nanodiamond + DOX) Intravenous Sprague-Dawley rats BALB/c mice Liver [4]
Nanodiamond DNX (nanodiamond + DOX) Intravenous Sprague-Dawley rats BALB/c mice Lungs [4]
Nanodiamond RUDDM (Real-Dzerzhinsk ultra-disperse diamond modified) Intravenous Chinchilla rabbits No aggregates but effects on biochemical blood parameters [34]
Nanodiamond RUDDM (Real-Dzerzhinsk ultra-disperse diamond modified) Subcutaneous ICR mice Subcutaneous injection region, skin [34]
Nanodiamond Fluorescent nanodiamond Gonad arms Caenorhabditis elegans Gonad, oocytes, early embryos [26]
Nanodiamond Fluorescent nanodiamond Intragastrically Caenorhabditis elegans Gut (digestive track, after 20 min FND were excreted)—aggregates [26]
Nanodiamond Dextran-coated Fluorescent nanodiamond BSA-coated FND Intragastrically Caenorhabditis elegans Intestinal cells [26]
Single-walled carbon nanotubes SWCNTs Intravenous CD-ICR mouse Liver, lung, spleen [28]
Single-walled carbon nanotubes 64Cu-labeled SWNT–PEG2000 Intravenous Nude mice Liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, lung [36]
SWNT–PEG5400