- Nano Express
- Open Access
Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas
© Lee et al. 2016
- Received: 4 August 2015
- Accepted: 14 December 2015
- Published: 7 January 2016
Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu].
- Carbon monoxide
- Copper-manganese oxide
Methods to effectively eliminate carbon monoxide have attracted much attention [1–5]. Recently, the related materials have been reported by different groups. It would be better to cite some examples [6–8]. Even though these supported noble metal-based catalysts have shown high activities for carbon monoxide elimination, their further application has been limited due to difficulties in reuse, sintering at high temperature, and high cost [9–12]. For this reason, the development of transition metal oxide catalysts as alternatives has gained much interest.
Transition metal oxides like CuOx, MnOx, and FeOx have so far been used for the elimination of carbon monoxide in bimetallic forms [13–15]. Recently, the related materials have been reported by different groups. It would be better to cite some examples [16, 17]. The binary Cu-Mn oxides have flexible metal valences (Cu1+/2+ and Mn3+/4+) which give rise to their specific properties and notable catalytic activities in carbon monoxide elimination [18, 19]. In particular, the incomplete Mn1.5Cu1.5O4 spinel structure of the binary Cu-Mn oxide catalyst was more active in the removal of carbon monoxide at room temperature than that of the same spinel structure with CuO [19–21]. In addition, its level of activity in removing carbon monoxide was reduced if the catalyst was calcined at a temperature above 500 °C, at which the crystallization of the spinel occurs.
Porous materials are typically used for separation, biological immobilization, catalysts, and supports, because of their high surface area and unique physical and chemical properties [22–27]. Porous materials such as zeolites have also been employed as supports for metal oxide nanoparticles for the removal of carbon monoxide [28, 29]. However, such materials limit the incorporation of nanoparticles into the micropores, as well as the diffusion of the reactant, due to irregular micropores. For these reasons, ordered porous structures with high surface area and mesopore size, such as MCM-41 and SBA-15, have been widely used as catalyst supports [26, 27]. Consequently, various metal oxide-loaded mesoporous silica catalysts, such as Fe/SBA-15, CuO/SBA-15, and CuO-CeO2/SBA-15, have been studied and observed to provide improved performance in carbon monoxide elimination [23, 30, 33]. However, as yet, there has been little study of binary CuMnOx-loaded mesoporous silica for the elimination of gaseous phase carbon monoxide.
Herein, we report on binary CuMnOx-loaded mesoporous silica catalysts, prepared using a co-precipitation method, and their catalytic performance for gaseous carbon monoxide elimination, achieved at ambient temperature with various types of [Mn]/[Cu] ratios. This co-precipitation method allowed for room temperature synthesis of amorphous binary CuMnOx with high catalytic activity for CO elimination at room temperature. The CO elimination results demonstrate that CuMnOx@MS-4 (with a [Mn]/[Cu] volume ratio of 4/1) can efficiently achieve >98 % elimination of CO gas within 420 min at room temperature.
Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene) triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123, PEO20PPO70PEO20), hydrochloric acid, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), manganese nitrate hexahydrate, and copper nitrate trihydrate were used from Sigma-Aldrich. All chemicals were used as received without any further purification.
Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Silica (MS)
The ordered mesoporous silica support was synthesized following our previously reported method [23, 24]. Tri-block copolymer Pluronic P123 was dissolved in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (1 < pH < 2) under vigorous stirring at 40 °C. A clear solution was obtained by incubating a complete dissolution of the surfactant. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was added into the solution at 40 °C as a silica source. The mixture was aged in a stainless steel bomb at 120 °C overnight. The precipitate was filtered, washed with excess water, air-dried at room temperature, and calcined at 550 °C.
Synthesis of Binary Metal Oxide-Loaded Ordered Mesoporous Silica Catalysts (CuMnOx@MS)
The CuMnOx@MS catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method at ambient temperature with an aqueous solution of Cu(NO3)2 and Mn(NO3)2. An aqueous solution of Cu(NO3)2°3H2O (0.25 M) and Mn(NO3)2°6H2O (0.25 M) was pre-mixed and impregnated into the mesoporous silica. The CuMnOx@MS catalysts were synthesized as a function of various molar ratios of [Mn]/[Cu]. The compositions were in the range of [Mn]/[Cu] 1/1 (CuMnOx@MS-1), 2/1 (CuMnOx@MS-2), and 4/1 (CuMnOx@MS-4), respectively. Subsequently, an aqueous solution of Na2CO3 (2 M) was added to maintain the pH at 8. The composite was aged for 2 h and heated to 80 °C. The composite was recovered by filtration and washed several times with hot deionized water, air-dried at room temperature, and calcined at 400 °C for 2 h.
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns were obtained on a Rigaku DMAX-2500 diffractometer using Cu-K α radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm) at 40 kV and 20 mA. The SAXS measurements were collected in the range 0.5°–4° of 2θ with a scanning speed of 2°min−1. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns were recorded using a Rigaku DMAX-2500 Instrument with Cu-K α radiation. The samples were scanned in the range 20°–80° of 2θ with a scanning speed of 2°min−1.
Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms were obtained with a Micromeritics TriStar II system. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method was utilized to calculate the surface areas. The pore size distribution curves were obtained from the desorption branch calculated by the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) method. The morphological and structural details of the material were also studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). FE-SEM investigations were carried out with a JEOL JSM-6700 F instrument using 10 kV of accelerating voltage. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) attached to the electron microscopy was used to qualitatively determine the elements present. HR-TEM was carried out on a JEOL JEM-4010 electron microscope operated at 400 kV. Cross-sectional slices of CuMnOx@MS, less than 60 nm in thickness, were prepared by using an ultramicrotome. To determine Cu, Mn, and Si ion contents in the various catalysts, the dried samples were weighed and digested with a mixed solution of phosphoric acid and ammonium metavanadate solution in sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid by heating. And then the Cu, Mn, and Si contents were analyzed, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Perkin Elmer instrument).
CO Elimination Test
The detection of CO elimination was performed by IR with a JASCO FTIR-460 spectrometer (resolution 4 cm−1, integration 20 times) and measured at room temperature. A sample was placed in an IR gas cell with KBr windows, and no treatment was applied before the measurement of elimination activity. 0.5 g of CuMnOx@MS catalyst was used in the IR gas cell. CO gas (50 mL) was added to the IR gas cell. The IR spectrum was obtained every 10 min at room temperature. The schematic of the CO elimination efficiency evaluation setup composed of a JASCO FTIR-460 spectrometer is shown in Additional file 1: Figure S1.
Physicochemical properties of the mesoporous silica and CuMnOx@MS samples synthesized with different Mn contents
Pore diameterb (nm)
Pore volumec (cm3 · g−1)
S BET d (m2 · g−1)
In this study, binary CuMnOx nanoparticle-loaded MS catalyst was successfully synthesized by co-precipitation and demonstrated for CO elimination at room temperature. Based on detailed characterizations, including SAXS, BET, and HR-TEM techniques, the binary CuMnOx nanoparticles were determined to be amorphous type with a diffraction peak similar to hopcalite. Moreover, the catalytic activity of the CuMnOx@MS catalysts was investigated for various [Mn]/[Cu] concentrations. With increasing [Mn] concentration, the catalytic activity was increased. Among these catalysts, CuMnOx@MS-4 showed the highest catalytic activity, of over 98 % CO elimination after 420 min at room temperature. The binary Cu-Mn metal oxide-loaded MS has good potential for practical applications to decrease CO in air pollution.
This work was supported by a grant from the Fundamental R&D Program for Core Technology of Materials funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Li P, Miser DE, Rabiei S, Yadav RT, Hajaligol MR (2003) The removal of carbon monoxide by iron oxide nanoparticles. Appl Catal, B 43:151–162View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carlsson PA, Skoglundh M (2011) Low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane over alumina and ceria supported platinum catalysts. Appl Catal, B 101:669–675View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Judai K, Abbet S, Wörz AS, Heiz U, Henry CR (2004) Low-temperature cluster catalysis. J Am Chem Soc 126:2732–2737View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Manjula P, Arunkumar S, Manorama SV (2011) Au/SnO2 an excellent material for room temperature CO sensing. Sens Actu B 152:168–175View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Royer S, Duprez D (2011) Catalytic oxidation of CO over transition metal oxides. Chem Cat Chem 3:24–65Google Scholar
- Bastakoti BP, Torad NL, Yamauchi Y (2014) Polymeric micelle assembly for the direct synthesis of platinum-decorated mesoporous TiO2 toward highly selective sensing of acetaldehyde. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6(2):854–860View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bastakoti BP, Li Y, Miyamoto N, Sanchez-Ballester NM, Abe H, Ye J et al (2014) Polymeric micelle assembly for the direct synthesis of functionalized mesoporous silica with fully accessible Pt nanoparticles toward an improved CO oxidation reaction. Chem Commun 50:9101–9104View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gawande MB, Zboril R, Malgras V, Yamauchi Y (2015) Integrated nanocatalysts: a unique class of heterogeneous catalysts. J Mater Chem A 3:8241–8245View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang F, Lu G (2010) Hydrogen feed gas purification over bimetallic Cu–Pd catalysts—effects of copper precursors on CO oxidation. Inter J Hydro Ener 35:7253–7260View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wojciechowska M, Lomnicki S (1999) Nitrogen oxides removal by catalytic methods. Clean Prod Proc 1:237–247Google Scholar
- Pârvulescu P, Grange P, Delmon B (1998) Catalytic removal of NO. Catal Today 46:233–316View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Drouet C, Alphonse P, Rousset A (2001) New spinel materials for catalytic NO– CO reaction: nonstoichiometric nickel–copper manganites. Appl Catal, B 33:35–43View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qiao B, Wang A, Yang X, Allard LF, Jiang Z, Cui Y et al (2011) Single-atom catalysis of CO oxidation using Pt1/FeOx. Nat Chem 3:634–641View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yakimova MS, Ivanov VK, Polezhaeva OS, Trushin AA, Lermontov AS, Tretyakov YD (2009) Reaction mechanism of CO oxidation on Cu2O(111): a density functional study. Dok Chem 427:86–189Google Scholar
- Kameoka S, Tanabe T, Tsai A (2005) Effect of thermal treatment on activity and durability of CuFe2O4 Al2O3 composite catalysts for steam reforming of dimethyl ether. Catal Lett 100:89–93View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morales MR, Barbero BP, Cadús LE (2006) Total oxidation of ethanol and propane over Mn-Cu mixed oxide catalysts. Appl Catal, B 67:229–236View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morales MR, Barbero BP, Cadús LE (2008) Evaluation and characterization of Mn–Cu mixed oxide catalysts for ethanol total oxidation: influence of copper content. Fuel 87:1177–1186View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Behar S, Gonzalez P, Agulhon P, Quignard F, Świerczyński D (2012) New synthesis of nanosized Cu–Mn spinels as efficient oxidation catalysts. Catal Today 189:35–41View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hutchings CJ, Mirzaei AA, Joyner RW, Siddiqui MRH, Taylor SH (1998) Effect of preparation conditions on the catalytic performance of copper manganese oxide catalysts for CO oxidation. Appl Catal, A 166:143–152View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vepřek S, Cocke DL, Kehl S, Oswald HR (1986) Mechanism of deactivation of hopcalite catalysts studied by XPS, ISS, and other techniques. J Catal 100:250–263View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krämer M, Schmidt T, Stöwe K, Maier WF (2006) Structural and catalytic aspects of sol–gel derived copper manganese oxides as low-temperature CO oxidation catalyst. Appl Catal, A 302:257–263View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Larsson P, Andersson A (2000) Oxides of copper, ceria promoted copper, manganese and copper manganese on Al2O3 for the combustion of CO, ethyl acetate and ethanol. Appl Catal, B 24:175–192View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee J, Chang JH (2012) Highly ordered magnetic mesoporous silicas for effective elimination of carbon monoxide. J Solid State Chem 188:100–104View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee J, Lee SY, Park SH, Lee HS, Lee JH, Jeong B et al (2013) High throughput detection and selective enrichment of histidine-tagged enzymes with Ni-doped magnetic mesoporous silica. J Mater Chem B 1:610–616View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Zhang J, Gu H (2011) Adsorption and desorption behaviors of DNA with magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Langmuir 27:6099–6106View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu S, Chen H, Lu X, Deng C, Zhang X, Yang P (2010) Facile synthesis of copper(II)Immobilized on magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres for selective enrichment of peptides for mass spectrometry analysis. Angew Chem 122:7719–7723View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fukuoka A, Kimura JI, Oshio T, Sakamoto Y, Ichikawa M (2007) Preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide catalyzed by platinum nanoparticles in mesoporous silica. J Am Chem Soc 129:10120–10125View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Visser T, Nijhuis TA, van der Eerden AMJ, Jenken K, Ji Y, Bras W et al (2005) Promotion effects in oxidation of CO over zeolite-supported Pt nanoparticles. J Phys Chem B 109:3822–3831View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kang YM, Wan BZ (1997) Gold and iron supported on Y-type zeolite for carbon monoxide oxidation. Catal Today 35:379–392View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Patel A, Shukla P, Rufford T, Wang S, Chen J, Rudolph V et al (2011) Catalytic reduction of NO by CO over copper-oxide supported mesoporous silica. Appl Catal, A 409:55–65View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Junges U, Jacobs W, Martin I, Krutzsch B, Schüth F (1995) Metal nanoparticles supported on Al-MCM-41 via in situ aqueous synthesis. J Chem Soc Chem Comm 22:2283–2284View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ledesma CLP, Perea LE, Nava R, Pawelec B, Fierro JL (2010) Supported gold catalysts in SBA-15 modified with TiO2 for oxidation of CO. Appl Catal, A 375:37–48View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tang C, Sun J, Yao X, Cao Y, Liu L, Ge C et al (2014) Efficient fabrication of active CuO-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts for preferential oxidation of CO by solid state impregnation. Appl Catal, B 146:201–212View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andrade S, Hypolito R, Ulbrich HUG, Silva ML (2002) Iron(II) oxide determination in rocks and minerals. Chem Geol 182:85–89View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mathew T, Sivaranjani K, Gnanakumar ES, Yamada Y, Kobayashi T, Gopinath CS (2012) γ-Al2−x M x O3±y (M = Ti4+ through Ga3+): potential pseudo-3D mesoporous materials with tunable acidity and electronic structure. J Mater Chem 22:13484–13493View ArticleGoogle Scholar