- Nano Express
- Open Access
Synthesis of High-Aspect-Ratio Nickel Nanowires by Dropping Method
© Zhang et al. 2016
Received: 24 December 2015
Accepted: 9 February 2016
Published: 1 March 2016
A facile and high-yield route, dropping method, has been used to synthesize Ni nanowires (NWs) with a high aspect ratio. Compared to the conventional chemical reduction method, the diameter of Ni NWs prepared by the dropping method distinctively decreased and the surface roughness was improved. After optimizing the process parameters such as the Ni ion concentration and volume of the dropped NiCl2·6H2O solution, the diameter and aspect ratio of the NWs are 70 nm and ~600, respectively. The possible synthesized process of the dropping method was discussed. This work presents a preferred approach to fabricate high-quality one-dimensional magnetic materials which have potential applications in electrochemical devices, magnetic sensors, and catalytic agents.
Over the past decades, controlled growth of nanostructure magnetic materials has been attracting considerable attention owing to their size- or shape-dependent properties [1, 2]. As a type of important magnetic material, nickel nanowires (NWs) possess unique magnetic and catalytic properties, and it has been synthesized and studied because of their potential applications in catalytic , microwave-absorbing materials , sensors , and memory devices . To improve the performance of the materials and achieve its full potential in these applications, the preparation of Ni NWs with well-controlled size and surface roughness is critical.
The general methods for preparing Ni NWs usually require surfactants or additional template assistance, which are efficient in controlling the crystal growth and size of NWs [7, 8]. Unfortunately, these methods possibly lead to complicated fabrication processes, low cost efficiency, and low yield, which further limit the potential application. In recent years, synthesis of NWs by chemical reduction route is the preferred approach as it is low-costing, environmentally friendly, safe, and feasible for large-scale production. Liu, et al.  synthesized nickel NWs by assembly of small nanoparticles. Tang et al.  prepared the Ni NWs with chain morphology using the microwave-assisted method. However, to control the size and morphology of NWs synthesized by this method is still a challenge; it therefore becomes an interesting research field to precisely control the size and shape of these materials.
In this work, we propose a modified chemical reduction process, dropping method, to synthesize Ni NWs. In this method, the diameter of Ni NWs was effectively controlled, and the aspect ratio of NWs has been improved under a very low magnetic field (~0.05 T). Then, a possible synthesized process has been described. This method may further shed light on the fabrication approach on magnetic NWs with high quality.
During the synthesis process of Ni NWs by dropping method, 1.2 g sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was dissolved in 35 ml ethylene glycol (EG) under continuous magnetic stirring for 1 h. And then, 10 ml hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O, 80 wt%) solution as a reducing agent was added into the NaOH and EG mixed solution with constant stirring to obtain a homogeneous solution. The as-prepared solution was placed in a magnetic field and heated to 80 °C at atmospheric pressure. The strength of the magnetic field in the container was 0.05 T generated by a NdFeB magnet. Then, 5 ml EG solution of nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2·6H2O, 0.1 M) was added dropwise into the abovementioned solution. After about 10 min, a black fluffy solid product was formed and adsorbed on the inner surface of the container. The products were collected using a magnetic field and washed repeatedly with distilled water and ethanol and then dried at 60 °C for 12 h. The NWs prepared by the dropping method are named as DM-NWs. For comparison, Ni NWs were prepared by a conventional chemical reduction method . In this method, a homogeneous blue solution was obtained by fully mixing all the abovementioned solutions alternately and the Ni NWs were synthesized with the same conditions of the dropping method. The NWs synthesized by the conventional method are named as CM-NWs. The size and surface morphology analyses were performed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM, Hitachi SU8010, Japan). The phase structure and composition of NWs were characterized by an X-ray polycrystalline diffractometer (XRD, D8 Advance, Bruker) using Cu Kα radiation with a graphite monochromator. The 2θ was scanned over the wide-angle range of 20°–90° at a rate of 1°/min to identify the structure. The detailed microstructure of the samples was studied by a transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEM-2100, Japan).
Results and Discussion
In the dropping method, because the density of the NiCl2·6H2O solution is larger than that of the reduction agent, the droplet was diffusing and falling in the reduction agent which is different from that of the conventional method. In Fig. 4c, the drop-shaped area bounded by the dotted line indicates the diffusion region of the NiCl2·6H2O solution in the reduction agent, and the diffusion region increased with the reaction time increasing. Therefore, Ni reduction reaction will follow the dropping process of droplet; the Ni-induced nanoparticles are a graded distribution. In addition, owing to the little Ni content in droplet, there are not enough nanoparticles to increase the diameter of NWs during the formation process, i.e., the diameter of DM-NWs is smaller, and the NWs have a smooth surface compared to the CM-NWs as shown in Fig. 2a, b. Meanwhile, inasmuch as the Ni nanoparticles were distributed in a small area, the magnetic induction line will concentrate upon this area, which will enlarge the length of NWs (shown in Fig. 4d).
In summary, a facile, low-cost, environment-friendly improved approach, dropping method, to synthesize Ni NWs with a high aspect ratio has been developed. By optimizing the preparation conditions, the diameter of NWs decreased to 70 nm using this method. Compared to the conventional method, it is indicated that the dropping method is an effective technique to tune the diameter of Ni NWs. Based on the investigation of the structures of NWs and the influence of synthesis parameters, the difference of the synthesized process between DM-NWs and CM-NWs has been discussed. This improved synthesis method shows great potential value to synthesized high-quality NWs which could be applied in the fields of catalytic, magnetic, and electric sensors.
This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of Beijing (4142047), the Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project (YETP0684), and the Excellent Young Teachers Program of China University of Petroleum (ZX20150108).
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Vaezi MR, Vishlaghi MB, Tabriz MF, Moradi OM (2015) Effect of experimental factors on magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction method using a statistical design. J Alloy Compd 635:118–123View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rioux D, Meunier M (2015) Seeded growth synthesis of composition and size-controlled gold–silver alloy nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 119:13160–13168View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Senapati S, Srivastava SK, Singh SB, Mishra HN (2012) Magnetic Ni/Ag core–shell nanostructure from prickly Ni nanowire precursor and its catalytic and antibacterial activity. J Mater Chem 22:6899–6906View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qiao L, Han XH, Gao B, Wang JB, Wen FS, Li FS (2009) Microwave absorption properties of the hierarchically branched Ni nanowire composites. Appl Phys Lett 105:053911Google Scholar
- Jamal M, Hasan M, Mathewson A, Razeeb KM (2013) Disposable sensor based on enzyme-free Ni nanowire array electrode to detect glutamate. Biosens Bioelectron 40:213–218View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- He L, Liao ZM, Wu HC, Tian XX, Xu DS, Cross GL, Duesberg GS, Shvets IV, Yu DP (2011) Memory and threshold resistance switching in Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires. Nano Lett 11:4601–4606View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li F, Wang WG, Li L, Zhang XP, Wang J (2015) Magnetic anisotropy and one-dimensionality finite-size scaling law in polycrystalline Ni nanowire arrays. J Alloy Compd 635:21–24View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Niu HL, Chen QW, Ning M, Jia YS, Wang XJ (2004) Synthesis and one-dimensional self-assembly of acicular nickel nanocrystallites under magnetic fields. J Phys Chem B 108:3996–3999View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu P, Li ZJ, Zhao B, Yadian B, Zhang YF (2009) Template-free synthesis of nickel nanowires by magnetic field. Mater Lett 63:1650–1652View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tang SC, Zheng Z, Vongehr S, Meng XK (2011) Facile and rapid synthesis of nickel nanowires and their magnetic properties. J Nanopart Res 13:7085–7094View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kong YY, Pang SC, Chin SF (2015) Facile synthesis of nickel nanowires with controllable morphology. Mater Lett 142:1–3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Narayanan TN, Shaijumon MM, Ci LJ, Ajayan PM, Anantharaman MR (2008) On the growth mechanism of nickel and cobalt nanowires and comparison of their magnetic properties. Nano Res 1:465–473View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hu MJ, Lin B, Yu SH (2008) Magnetic field-induced solvothermal synthesis of one-dimensional assemblies of Ni-Co alloy microstructures. Nano Res 1:303–313View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Zhang LY, Liu P, Lan MT, Zhang J, Wei LM, Kong ES, Jiang CH, Zhang YF (2010) Preparation and growth mechanism of nickel nanowires under applied magnetic field. Nano-Micro Lett 2:134–138View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang JQ, Liu CM, Liu Y, Zhao CY, Xiang WF, Zhao K, Tang L (2015) Controllable preparation of the nickel nanowires using the chemical reduction method. Micronanoelectronic Technology 52:741–745 (In Chinese)Google Scholar