Graphene-Enhanced Raman Scattering from the Adenine Molecules
© Dolgov et al. 2016
Received: 24 November 2015
Accepted: 5 April 2016
Published: 14 April 2016
An enhanced Raman scattering from a thin layer of adenine molecules deposited on graphene substrate was detected. The value of enhancement depends on the photon energy of the exciting light. The benzene ring in the structure of adenine molecule suggests π-stacking of adenine molecule on top of graphene. So, it is proposed that the enhancement in the adenine Raman signal is explained by the resonance electron transfer from the Fermi level of graphene to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of adenine.
KeywordsGraphene Raman scattering Chemical enhancement Adenine
PACS78.30.-j 78.67.-n 78.67.Wj
Non-invasive sensing of biological molecules, especially deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its constituents, by means of label-free optical spectroscopy can open new prospects in biomedical analysis. Recently, we described a possibility for fluorescent detection of low concentrated DNA solution infiltrated into globular photonic crystal . Since the fluorescence of DNA and its constituents is comparatively weak, Raman technique instead of fluorescence was used for detecting low concentration of adenine in solution. Adenine is one chemical component of the DNA.
Maximal theoretical enhancement of the Raman signal caused by the surface of nanostructured noble metals can reach tens of orders of magnitude . Such significant enhancement is usually associated with local concentration of electric field in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures because of surface plasmons and referred to an electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) . However, realizing such an enhancement in practice is not very usual. Thus, in the case of adenine, moderate Raman enhancements have been reported by different scientific groups both for the adenine adsorbed onto silver electrodes [4, 5] and for the solid adenine films deposited onto nanostructured aluminum surface . In the latter work, 1-nm-thick layers of adenine molecules were deposited on nanostructured aluminum surface and the reference fused silica substrate. The fact that the authors of  could detect the presence of such thin adenine film on the fused silica substrate testifies that the sensitivity of their setup was on the high side. But, the enhancement of the Raman signal caused by nanostructured aluminum was only seven times. Recently, Mevold et al.  probed graphene covered by gold nanoparticles as SERS substrate for adenine and obtained a threefold increase in Raman intensity. In that work, graphene was used only as a substrate for assembling gold nanoparticles. Small benefit in SERS was associated not with graphene but with plasmonic effect caused by the gold nanoparticles.
Application of graphene as a substrate for SERS has renovated the interest in the use of surface-enhanced spectroscopy in optical sensing. It has been established that the Raman signal from some organic molecules deposited on graphene can be enhanced but usually less than in the abovementioned plasmonic case. The effect itself is quite novel for graphene and depends both on the type, spatial orientation of the tested molecules, strength of their interaction with graphene, molecular energy levels, and graphene properties [8, 9]. Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering is associated with a charge transfer from graphene to the tested molecules, which is also called the chemical mechanism of SERS. Current research is directed towards determination of molecular selectivity and sensitivity limits at which Raman scattering from the tested molecules can be enhanced by graphene . The main benefit of using graphene instead of noble metal is its ability to spectrally separate manifestations of Raman chemical enhancement in the visible light region from electromagnetic enhancement inherit to the far infrared range . For the noble metals, the effects of chemical and electromagnetic enhancements are spectrally overlapped.
In the present work, we report about up to 12 times enhancement of the Raman signal from an adenine layer on graphene in comparison with adenine deposited on quartz substrate and discuss the reasons for such effect.
Raman spectra from the droplets were measured on a Renishaw inVia micro-Raman setup equipped with a multiline argon laser using either the 488- or 514-nm laser line for excitation.
Results and Discussion
In order to distinguish Raman bands of adenine from those inherent to substrate, we measured and plotted the Raman spectra of bare silica (Fig. 1, spectrum 1), silicon (Fig. 1, spectrum 2), and graphene on silicon substrate (Fig. 1, spectrum 3).
The Raman bands of silicon at 520 and 950–1000 cm−1 (Fig. 1, spectrum 2) are associated with the first- and second-order Raman scattering from the optical phonons of Si lattice [17, 18]. The presence of the G band at 1580 cm−1 and 2D band at 2700 cm−1 (Fig. 1, spectrum 3) indicates graphene layer on the top of silicon. The ratio of the two bands implies the presence of single-layer graphene. The nature of the graphene band at 2450 cm−1 is debatable, for example, Ferrari and Basko  assign this band with a combination of a D phonon and a phonon belonging to the LA branch.
One can see that the Raman scattering from the adenine deposited on graphene is up to 12 times stronger than that from the adenine deposited on quartz substrate.
This is a specific example of the so-called chemical mechanism of Raman enhancement [8–10]. It works if the photon energy of the exciting light is resonant with the energy gap between the Fermi-LUMO levels. The first judgment about this resonant mechanism can be done if the intensities of Raman scattering will be compared at different excitation wavelengths. Comparison of spectra 2 and 3 measured with 514- and 488-nm excitations (Fig. 2) shows that the corresponding Raman signal excited at 514 nm is slightly stronger. This is illustrated in Fig. 3, where the intensities of the most pronounced adenine Raman bands in the range 1100–1500 cm−1 are plotted after subtraction of the base line and normalization on the laser intensity for both excitation wavelengths.
It can be speculated that the light with photon energy 2.41 eV (514 nm) fits better to the energy gap than the photons with energy of 2.54 eV (488 nm). The complication here is in the identification of the exact LUMO and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies of the adenine molecule with respect to the vacuum level taken as a reference point. Experimentally, it can be done, for example, by derivation of the real and imaginary values of the permittivity of solid adenine films in the deep ultraviolet spectral range. It is done, for example, in article  by means of using synchrotron irradiation. The value of the HOMO-LUMO gap obtained from these measurements is ~4.4 eV. It roughly corresponds to the value of ~4 eV calculated by the use of the density functional theory [22, 23]. Similar calculations have been made in reference . There, the HOMO-LUMO gap is reportedly 3.8 eV, and the relative position of the LUMO and HOMO levels of adenine is mentioned as −2.2 and −6 eV, respectively.
Voltage-dependent shift of the graphene’s Fermi level could be another way to control the resonance conditions for electron transfer to adenine on graphene. Our first attempts in this direction were not very successful because graphene suffers from hysteresis of electrical characteristics in atmospheric conditions . It complicates the electrical control of the graphene’s Fermi level.
Enhanced Raman scattering from thin adenine layers deposited on graphene was detected. It was accompanied by quenching of the background fluorescence of adenine by the underlying graphene layer. The enhancement of the Raman signal depends on the photon energy of the exciting light in a manner which is in agreement with the assumption that a resonant electron transfer from the Fermi level of graphene to the LUMO level of adenine molecule takes place.
This work was supported by the Estonian Research Council (institutional project IUT34-27) and partially by ETF9283, Marie Curie ILSES project no. 612620, DoRa T5 project, and NATO SPS project NUKR.SFPP984702.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Boiko V, Fesenko O, Gorchev V, Karakhim S, Dolgov L, Kiisk V, Sildos I, Gorelik V, Dovbeshko G (2013) Luminescent imaging of biological molecules and cells on the photonic crystal surface. In: Fesenko O, Yatsenko L, Brodin M (eds) Nanomaterials imaging techniques, surface studies and applications. Springer, New York, pp 253–262View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stockman MI (2006) Electromagnetic theory of SERS. In: Kneipp K, Moskovits M, Kneip H (eds) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering physics and applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 47–65View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schlücker S (2014) Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: concepts and chemical applications. Angew Chem Int Edit 53:4756–4795View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Otto C, Mul FFM, Huizinga A, Greve J (1988) Surface enhanced Raman scattering of derivatives of adenine: the importance of the external amino group in adenine for surface binding. J Phys Chem 92:1239–1244View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Otto C, Hoeben F, Greve J (1991) Complexes of silver with adenine and dAMP. J Raman Spectros 22:791–796View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jha S, Ahmed Z, Agio M, Ekinci Y, Loffler J (2012) Deep-UV surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of adenine on aluminum nanoparticle arrays. J Am Chem Soc 134:1966–1969View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mevold A et al (2015) Fabrication of gold nanoparticles/graphene-PDDA nanohybrids for biodetection by SERS nanotechnology. Nanoscale Res Lett 10:397View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xi L et al (2010) Can graphene be used as a substrate for Raman enhancement? Nano Lett 10:553–561View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu W, Mao N, Zhang J (2013) Graphene: a platform for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Small 9(8):1206–1224View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang S et al (2015) Molecular selectivity of graphene-enhanced Raman scattering. Nano Lett 15:2892–2901View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jablan M, Soljacic M, Buljan H (2013) Plasmons in graphene: fundamental properties and potential applications. P IEEE 101(7):1689–1704View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang D et al (2003) Raman detection of proteomic analytes. Anal Chem 75:5703–5709View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Skuja L (1998) Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide. J Non-Cryst Solids 239(1-3):16–48View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galeener F (1979) Band limits and the vibrational spectra of tetrahedral glasses. Phys Rev B 19(8):4292–4297View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galeener F, Geissberger A (1983) Vibrational dynamics in 30Si-substituted vitreous SiO2. Phys Rev B 27(10):6199View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galeener F, Lucovsky G (1976) Longitudinal optical vibrations in glasses: GeO2 and SiO2. Phys Rev Lett 37(22):1474View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Russell J (1965) Raman scattering in silicon. Appl Phys Lett 6(11):223–224View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Parker J, Feldman D, Ashkin M (1967) Raman scattering by silicon and germanium. Phys Rev 155(3):712–714View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferrari A, Basko D (2013) Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene. Nat Nanotech 8:235–246View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mathlouthi M, Seuvre A-M (1984) F.T.-I.R. and laser-Raman spectra of adenine and adenosine. Carbohyd Res 131:1–15View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Silaghi S, Friedrich M, Cobet C, Esser N, Braun W, Zahn D (2005) Dielectric functions of DNA base films from near-infrared to ultra-violet. Phys Stat Sol B 242(15):3047–3052View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mishra S, Shukla M, Mishra P (2000) Electronic spectra of adenine and 2-aminopurine: an ab initio study of energy level diagrams of different tautomers in gas phase and aqueous solution. Spectrochim Acta A 56:1355–1384View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kilina S, Tretiak S, Yarotski D, Zhu J, Modine N, Taylor A, Balatsky A (2007) Electronic properties of DNA base molecules adsorbed on a metallic surface. J Phys Chem C 111:14541–14551View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Faber C, Attaccalite C, Olevano V, Runge E, Blase X (2011) First-principles GW calculations for DNA and RNA nucleobases. Phys Rev B 83:115123View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu H, Xie L, Zhang H, Zhang J (2011) Effect of graphene Fermi level on the Raman scattering intensity of molecules on graphene. ACS Nano 5(7):5338–5344View ArticleGoogle Scholar