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Table 1 Different stages and their products in gamma radiation radiolysis of aqueous media [36]

From: Recent Advances in Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles by Radiolysis Route

Different stages of radiolysis of water Important reactions
Physical stage (<10−15 s) H2O  H2O + + e
H2O  H2O*
Physico-chemical stage (~10−15–10−12 s) H2O + + H2O → OH + H3O
H2O* → H2O
\( {\mathrm{e}}^{-}\to {\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{th}}^{-}\to {\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{tr}}^{-}\to {\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{aq}}^{-} \)
Non-homogeneous chemical stage (10−12–10−6 s) \( {\mathrm{H}}_2\mathrm{O}\rightsquigarrow {\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{aq}}^{-},{\mathrm{H}}^{\cdot },{}{}^{\cdot}\mathrm{O}\mathrm{H},{\mathrm{H}}_2,{\mathrm{H}}_2{\mathrm{O}}_2,{\mathrm{H}}^{+},{\mathrm{O}\mathrm{H}}^{-} \)
  1. H2O + is the ionized water molecule, H2O* is the excited water molecule, and sub-excitations electrons \( {\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{th}}^{-} \) and \( {\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{tr}}^{-} \) are thermalized and trapped electrons, respectively