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Table 2 Doped ZnO-based RRAM in published literature

From: Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

No Structure CC (mA) V F (V) V R (V) V S (V) Mode Endurance (cycles) ON/OFF ratio (times) Retention (seconds) Stress (seconds) Ref.
1 Cu/N:ZnO/Pt 10 NS ~−0.45 ~1.47 B 100 >102 NA NA [56]
2 Ag/Zn0.98Cu0.02O/ITO 10 NS ~−0.02 1.8 B NA 106 <103 NA [87]
1 NS −3.5 −15 U NA 104 >103 NA
3 Pt/ZnVO/Pt 10 ~−4 ~−0.5 ~−2.5 B 105 ~102 36 × 103/85 °C NA [85]
4 Pt/Zn0.99Zr0.01O/Pt 1 ~−2 ~1 ~−1.5 B 104 ~102 NA NA [86]
5 Al/ZTO/Pt 5 × 10−4 ~−2 ~1 ~−2.5 B 50 1.4 × 103 104/RT NA [90]
6 Pt/Mn:ZnO/Si NS FF ~−20 ~20 B 45 × 102 ~ 103 5 × 103/RT NA [91]
7 Pt/Zn1 − xCrxO/Pt FF ~3.5 ~3 B 100 7 × 103 36 × 103/RT NA [110]
8 Ti/AZTO/Pt 3 NS ~1.6 ~1.1 B 256 18 NA 104 [136]
9 Au/Co-ZnO/ITO/Au FF 4 2.6 BS 4000 ~7 NA NA [138]
10 Pt/Co:ZnO/Pt 10 FF ~−1 1.5–3 B 300 102 NA NA [139]
11 Al/ZnO:Cu/Pt 10 ~12 ~0.5 ~2 U 450 470 104/RT NA [140]
12 TiN/Ti/IGZO/Pt 10 ~6 ~−1.5 ~1 B 104 ~10 NA NA [141]
13 Pt/a-IGZO/Pt 10 ~10 ~−1 ~1.5 B 100 >10 >104/RT NA [142]
14 Al/IGZO/Al ~5 ~5 ~−5 B 100 ~2 NA NA [143]
15 Pt/ZnLaO/p-Si 10 ~6 ~1 ~2.5 U 150 >10 106 NA [144]
Pt/ZnLaO/Pt 10 ~4 ~0.5 ~2.5 >103 NA
16 Pt/(Zn1 − xMgx)O/Pt 10 ~5 ~1.5 ~3.5 U 50 140–103 NA NA [145]
17 Cu/ZnO:Mn/Pt 5 ~1.9 ~−0.6 ~1.2 B 65 >103 104/85 °C NA [146]
18 Au/ZnMn2O4/Pt 1 NS ~2 ~10 U 8000 105–107 4 × 104/RT NA [147]
Au/ZnMnO3/Pt 104–105
19 Pt/Mn:ZnOxS1 − x/Cu NS NS ~0.5 1–3 U 100 105–106 104/RT NA [148]
20 Au/Cr/ZnO:N/TiN 5 2.5 ~−1 ~0.75 B 100 ~1 104/RT NA [149]
21 Au/Ti:ZnO/ITO FF ~−3 ~3 B 200 14 2 × 103/RT NA [150]
22 Pt/ZnO:Ti/n+–Si 10 ~5.5 ~1 2–4 U 200 >102 >105/RT NA [151]
23 Ag/ZnO:Mn/Pt SC FF −2.6–−0.5 0.3–3.8 B 100 107 >107/RT NA [152]
24 Al/GaZnOx/p+-Si 7 ~4.8 ~−2.8 ~3.5 B 100 102 NA NA [183]
25 Ti/Mg0.1ZnO0.9/Pt 1 FF −1.5 1.5 B 500 >103 104 NA [189]
  1. NS not specified, CC current compliance, SC self-compliance, FF forming free, U unipolar, B bipolar, BS bistable, VF forming voltage, VR reset voltage, VS set voltage, RT measured at room temperature, NA data not available