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Table 1 Effects of engineered metal nanoparticles on plants

From: Engineered Gold Nanoparticles and Plant Adaptation Potential

Nanoparticle Size (nm) Plant Concentration Effect References
Dodecanethiol functionalized gold Lactuca sativa 0.013 % (w/w) No effect on the seed germination, improved shoot-to-root ratio [68]
Gold 10 Cucumis sativus, Lactuca sativa 62, 100, 116 mg L−1 Positive effect on germination index [45]
Mixture of gold/copper Lactuca sativa 0.013 % (w/w) No effect on the germination, improved shoot-to-root ratio [68]
Gold 24 Arabidopsis thaliana 10 μg/ml, 10 and 80 μg mL−1 Enhance total seed yield, improved seed germination rate; vegetative growth and free radical scavenging activity [3]
Gold Vigna unguiculata 1 mM No effect on growth, proline and malondialdehyde [75]
Gold Brassica juncea 25 ppm Improved seed germination rate [2]
Gold 2–19 Hordeum vulgare 10 μg mL−1 No effect on seed germination, reduced plant biomass [24]
Gold ~25 Gloriosa superba 1000 μM Improved seed germination rate, vegetative growth [66]