Room Temperature Crystallization of Hydroxyapatite in Porous Silicon Structures
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 5 May 2016
Accepted: 22 September 2016
Published: 10 November 2016
Porous silicon (PS) substrates, with different pore sizes and morphology, have been used to crystallize hydroxyapatite (HA) nano-fibers by an easy and economical procedure using a co-precipitation method at room temperature. In situ formation of HA nanoparticles, within the meso- and macroporous silicon structure, resulted in the formation of nanometer-sized hydroxyapatite crystals on/within the porous structure. The X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine the tetragonal structure of the crystals. Analysis/characterization demonstrates that under certain synthesis conditions, growth and crystallization of hydroxyapatite layer on/inside PS can be achieved at room temperature. Such composite structures expand the possibility of designing a new bio-composite material based on the hydroxyapatite and silicon synthesized at room temperature.
KeywordsPorous silicon Hydroxyapatite Co-precipitation method
Porous silicon is a nanostructured material obtained by electrochemical anodization of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and ethanol . One of the most important characteristics of PS is its high specific surface area [1–3], which was shown to have a nanostructured fractal (self-similar) surface  with tunable interconnected pores. It serves as an ideal substrate for crystal growth of different materials such as proteins [5, 6], oxides , semiconductors , metallic nanoparticles , and hydroxyapatites [2, 10]. Moreover, heterogeneous nucleation occurs more often than homogeneous nucleation. In different studies, the pore filling via nucleation inside the pore itself or nucleation from a branching pore has been demonstrated . Such fractal surface features have a great impact on the properties of different nanostructured materials adsorbed or grown over it [1–3]. The high specific surface area of porous silicon makes it highly reactive as well as biocompatible and biodegradable [1, 2]. Such characteristics provide a variety of applications such as sensors based on both electrical and optical properties, or in various medical applications such as intelligent drug delivery in the body [1, 2], and bone implants .
In vitro studies, involving the immersion of various materials in simulated body fluids [12–15], have used suitable porosities of mesoporous silicon in the formation of physiologically stable hydroxyapatite on its surface [16, 17]. Additionally, it has been used as surface substrates for cell culture based on hydroxyapatite-PS  and intelligent implants . For obtaining composites based on PS and HA, different deposition methods have been proposed [20–22]. In addition, PS can be easily integrated into conventional electronics making feasible the possibility of developing smart bio-devices based on hydroxyapatite [1–3, 23].
On the other hand, HA is the principal constituent of the bone and has been used to induce bone and teeth formation at particular biological sites requiring bone repair and crystalline growth on composite-metallic substrates [24–26]. HA is present in the mineralized tissues in the form of microscopic crystals of impure ultrastructural complexes (such as enamel), with crystal size of approximately 1 μm long and 50 nm in diameter. As an example, in dentin and bone tissues, the HA crystal size is smaller than enamel . From the dental standpoint, the crystalline orientation in the enamel is interesting due to the dissolution of the crystals in the process of cavity formation . Consequently, the properties of HA are directly influenced by particle size and morphology . The influence of the preparation methods on the chemical properties of HA is crucial, mainly due to its stability in a wide range of compositions, as well as accepting a variety of anionic and cationic substitutions. As a consequence of this, its behavior as biomaterial in a composite form can be easily modified for its development in tissue engineering [30–34] and drug delivery [35–37]. As HA morphology is sensitive to the preparation conditions, obtaining HA particles with desired characteristics could be tailored by appropriate selection of the synthetic pathway and the type of substrates in which HA can grow.
In this paper, we review our experimental results on enhanced infiltration, adhesion, nucleation, and crystallization of biological and inorganic materials in meso- and macroporous silicon. The phenomena of enhanced nucleation and crystallization of biological and inorganic materials on porous silicon are explained in terms of the level of surface fractality as well as pore size and shape. The proposed method is a new way to obtain HA-PS composites at room temperature.
Nanostructured PS was obtained by the electrochemical etching of n- and p-type, (100) oriented silicon, with a resistivity of 0.001–0.005 and 0.002–0.005 Ω·cm, respectively. To study the nucleation of HA within the n-type PS template, anodization was carried out under illumination (254 nm), with electrolyte consisting of a mixture of aqueous 48 wt.% HF (hydrofluoric acid) and absolute ethanol (99.9 %) in a volumetric ratio of 2:1, respectively. The PS layer was obtained by applying a constant current density of 80 mA/cm2 for 2 min. p-type boron-doped silicon was etched at a constant current density of 70 mA/cm2 for 2 min, with an electrolyte consisting of HF and ethanol in the volumetric ratio of 1:1. All the PS templates were thermally oxidized in air at 300 °C.
Macroporous silicon substrates were obtained by electrochemical dissolution of low doped, 8–12 Ω·cm, (100) oriented, n-type single-side polished crystalline Si substrate. A mixture of 48 wt.% aqueous HF and absolute ethanol in volumetric ratio of 1:4 was used as electrolyte to perform the etching process for 10 min. Samples were fabricated under the influence of electric and magnetic fields applied simultaneously. Experimental configuration consisted of n-type Si substrates with ohmic contacts prepared by rubbing Ga-In eutectic at the two extreme ends of the silicon wafer (30 × 10 mm). A lateral current flow (I x = 100 mA) was applied across the Si substrate, while a platinum electrode was joined to the negative terminal (cathode) of the applied lateral current (across the Si sample). A magnetic field H y = 0.4 T was placed perpendicular to the direction of the current (I x ), so that the majority charge carriers (electrons, e−) flowing in the x-direction will be swept down by the effect of the resulting Lorentz force, leading to a major accumulation of valance band holes (h+) at the HF-silicon interface, promoting the reaction. On the other hand, the lateral electric field contributes to the formation of a structural gradient across the sample in terms of pore size (from approximately 3 μm to 500 nm). The abovementioned macroporous silicon formation process has been described in detail by Antunez et al. .
On the other hand, HA samples were synthesized by co-precipitation method, with the following reagents: Ca(NO3)2•4H2O (Sigma-Aldrich, 99 %), N(C3H7)4OH (Sigma-Aldrich, 25 %), distilled water, and H3PO4 (Sigma-Aldrich, 85 %), following the stoichiometry of the chemical reaction reported in references [29, 39]. In this work, the following solutions were prepared: tannic acid 2 %; calcium chloride dihydrate 0.2 M; phosphoric acid 0.12 M; tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide 0.2 M, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate 0.2 M. The phosphoric acid was adjusted to pH 9 with tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide via a gradual process. Aqueous solutions were prepared, mixed with constant stirring of 300 rpm, and reduced. The HA was synthesized in aqueous solution and was subsequently dried by a freeze-drying technique to obtain a powder as a final product (denoted as HA powder sample).
The synthesized powders, HA@PS and MPS-HA samples were characterized by different techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed using a Bruker AXS D8 Advance diffractometer, with CuKα radiation (2θ from 4° to 110° with a step of 0.019°). Raman spectroscopy (Thermo Scientific) with confocal microscope and a 532-nm laser excitation source (10 mW) was used to measure the functional groups in the range of 3000–50 cm−1. For further analysis of structure and crystallinity, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of HA powders was performed through a JEOL JEM-2010F FasTem. Finally, the high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) JEOL JSM-7800F was used to analyze the morphology of the composite templates and to obtain EDS maps (on MPS-HA sample).
Results and Discussion
The chemical composition of hexagonal HA (within the ideal P63/m space group) is Ca(I)4Ca(II)6(PO4)6(OH)2 . The Ca(I) site is surrounded by six PO4 3− tetrahedral and coordinated by nine oxygen ions. The Ca(II) site is seven-coordinated with six oxygen ions from PO4 3− and one oxygen ion from OH−. In order to determine the effect of pore size on the growth and crystallization of HA nanostructures, we compare their deposition on/inside the two morphologically different nanostructured PS templates (n-, p-type) using a co-precipitation method. A schematic description of the mechanism that controls the morphology and size of HA nanostructures, due to the confinement of HAP precursor solution within the porous structure, is presented in Fig. 1b. On the basis of experimental observations, the growth processes on/within porous structures have been proposed (Fig. 1c(i)), i.e., the HA precipitation mechanism follows a series of events such as infiltration by capillarity (Fig. 1c(ii)), nucleation of the crystals on the rough porous template (Fig. 1c(iii)), followed by aggregation induced by capillary confined Ca2+ ions (Fig. 1c(iv)), and their corresponding growth (Fig. 1c(v)). The aggregation plays a highly relevant role in determining the final shape and size of HA particles . As a consequence, the oriented attachment of HA grown with a regular flake-like shape (see Fig. 1c) can be observed. The above discussion reveals the significant role played by the nanostructured PS in the modification of particle size and morphology due to the confinement of the precursor solution.
HA Powder Sample
Hydroxyapatite Raman vibrations are associated with the well-known internal four different tetragonal PO4 3− vibrational modes: ν 1 correspond to a totally symmetric stretching mode of the tetrahedral PO4 3− group (P-O bond), ν 2 is a doubly degenerate bending mode of the phosphate group (P-O-P bond), ν 3 is a triply degenerate asymmetric stretching mode of the tetrahedral PO4 3− group (P-O bond), and ν 4 is a triply degenerate bending mode of the PO4 group (O-P-O) [40, 41]. Figure 2b shows Raman spectra obtained from the HA powder sample. Three vibrational modes can be clearly identified. The analysis reveals a first band at 1045 cm−1 corresponding to the ν 3 phosphate (PO4) mode. Another appears at 958 cm−1, corresponding to the ν 1 phosphate (PO4) mode, and finally one more is revealed at 583 cm−1, which corresponds to the typical ν 4 band (PO4) of hydroxyapatite [43–45].
Mesoporous HA@PS-n and HA@PS-p Composite Samples
Typical vibrational modes present in HA@PS-n and HA@PS-p samples are shown in Fig. 4b, d. Two groups of peaks at about 430 and 585–611 cm−1 were identified as v 2 and v 4 phosphate modes, characteristic of HA nanostructures. A peak at 961 cm−1, clearly detected in the samples HA@PS-n and HA@PS-p, was assigned to the v 1 phosphate symmetric stretching of the HA, which is generally the strongest peak in the HA spectrum. The peaks measured at 520 and 303.6 cm−1 were also assigned to crystalline silicon . Similar to XRD results, this analysis confirmed the room temperature crystallization of HA on porous silicon.
Room temperature growth and crystallization of HA nanoparticles in/over partially oxidized porous silicon substrates have been demonstrated by co-precipitation method. Raman and XRD analyses of the composite samples revealed the characteristic phosphate peaks and the polycrystalline nature, respectively. Shape and pore size were favorable for the adhesion and growth of HA in porous structure, and the analysis confirms hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a hexagonal structure. PS with different tunable optical and electrical properties can be used for the development of optical/electrical biosensors for monitoring HA growth. This opens the possibility to develop composite biomaterials for biomedical applications at room temperature or physiological temperature based on hydroxyapatite nanocompounds.
The authors thank Carlos Magaña (IF-UNAM) for HRSEM, Roberto Hernández Reyes (IF-UNAM) for HRSEM images, and Antonio Morales (IF-UNAM) for the XRD patterns.
The project has been partially supported by CONACyT (CIAM 188657), Mexico. DGAPA with grant PAPIIT (IN108915).
MS and JOE carried out the experiments. JOE, VA, and RHB conceived the study. JOE, VA, and RHB drafted the manuscript. All authors are involved in revising the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Canham L (ed) (2014) Handbook of porous silicon. Springer International Publishing, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Santos HA (ed) (2014) Porous silicon for biomedical applications. Woodhead Publishing Limited, UKGoogle Scholar
- Losic D, Santos A (ed) (2015) Electrochemically engineered nanoporous materials methods, properties and applications. Springer International Publishing, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Stolyarova S, Baskin E, Nemirovsky Y (2012) Enhanced crystallization on porous silicon: facts and models. J Cryst Growth 360:131–133View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khushid S, Saridakis E, Govada L, Chayen NE (2015) Porous nucleating agents for protein crystallization. Nat Protoc 9:1621–1633View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Salazar-Kuri U, Estevez JO, Antunez EE, Martinez-Aguila BS, Warren JB, Babak A, Cerniglia ML, Stojanoff V, Agarwal V (2015) Nucleation of Sub-micrometer protein crystals in square-shaped macroporous silicon structures. Cryst Growth Des 15:2801–2808View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Antunez EE, Salazar-Kuri U, Estevez JO, Campos J, Basurto MA, Jiménez Sandoval S, Agarwal V (2015) Porous silicon-VO2 based hybrids as possible optical temperature sensor: wavelength-dependent optical switching from visible to near-infrared range. J Appl Phys 118:134503View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Korotcenkov G (ed) (2015) Porous silicon: from formation to applications: optoelectronics, microelectronics, and energy technology applications, CRC PRess, vol 3Google Scholar
- Polisski S, Goller B, Heck SC, Maier SA, Fujii M, Kovalev D (2011) Formation of metal nanoparticles in silicon nanopores: plasmon resonance studies. Appl Phys Lett 98:011912View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Asanithi P (2014) Surface porosity and roughness of micro graphite film for nucleation of hydroxyapatite. J Biomed Mater Res A:2590–2599Google Scholar
- Liu Y, Men Y, Zhang X (2012) Nucleation mechanism for vapor-to-liquid transition from substrates with nanoscale pores opened at one end. J Chem Phys 137(10):104701View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Canham LT (1995) Bioactive silicon structure fabrication through nanoetching techniques. Adv Mater 7:1033–1037View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leigh C, Reeves CL, King DO, Branfield PJ, Crabb JG, Ward MCL (1996) Bioactive polycrystalline silicon. Adv Mater 8:850–852Google Scholar
- Canham LT, Reeves CL, Loni A, Houlton MR, Newey JP, Simons AJ, Cox TI (1997) Calcium phosphate nucleation on porous silicon: factors influencing kinetics in a cellular simulated body fluids. Thin Solid Films 297:304–307View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martín-Palma RJ, Manso-Silván M, Torres-Costa V (2010) Biomedical applications of nanostructured porous silicon: a review. J Nanophoton 4:042502View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chin V, Collins BE, Sailor MJ, Bhatia SN (2001) Compatibility of primary hepatocytes with oxidized nanoporous silicon. Adv Mater 13:1877–1880View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Henstock JR, Ruktanonchai UR, Canham LT, Anderson SI (2014) Porous silicon confers bioactivity to polycaprolactone composites in vitro. J Mater Sci Mater Med 25:1087–1097View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sánchez A, González J, García-Piñeres A, Montero ML (2011) Nano-hydroxyapatite colloid suspension coated on chemically modified porous silicon by cathodic bias: a suitable surface for cell culture. Phys Status Solidi C 8:1898–1902View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Munir G, Koller G, Di Silvio L, Edirisinghe MJ, Bonfield W, Huang J (2011) The pathway to intelligent implants: osteoblast response to nano silicon-doped hydroxyapatite patterning. J R Soc Interface 8:678–688View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shaoqiang C, Zhu Z, Zhu J, Jian Z, Yanling S, Yu K, Wang W, Wang X, Xiao F, Luo L, Li S (2004) Hydroxyapatite coating on porous silicon substrate obtained by precipitation process. Appl Surf Sci 230:418–424View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pramatarova L, Pecheva E, Dimova MD, Presker R, Stutzmannc M, Schwarz U, Kniep R (2005) A novel laser-liquid-solid interaction process for hydroxyapatite formation on porous silicon, vol 5830. Proc. of SPIE, BellinghamGoogle Scholar
- Hernández-Montelongo J, Muñoz-Noval A, Torres-Costa V, Martín-Palma RJ, Manso Silvan M (2012) Cyclic calcium phosphate electrodeposition on porous silicon. Int J Electrochem Sci 7:1840–1851Google Scholar
- Pietak AM, Reid JW, Stott MJ, Sayer M (2007) Silicon substitution in the calcium phosphate bioceramics. Biomaterials 28:4023–4032View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Swetha M, Sahithi K, Moorthi A, Srinivasan N, Ramasamy K, Selvamurugan N (2010) Biocomposites containing natural polymers and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. Int J Biol Macromol 47:1–4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Forsgren J, Svahn F, Jarmar T, Engqvist H (2007) Formation and adhesion of biomimetic hydroxyapatite deposited on titanium substrates. Acta Biomater 3:980–984View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Surmeneva MA, Kleinhans C, Vacun G, Kluger PJ, Schönhaar, Müller M, Hein SB, Wittmar A, Ulbricht M, Prymak O, Oehr C, Surmenev (2015) Nano-hydoxyapatite-coated metal-ceramic composite of iron-tricalcium phosphate: Improving the surface wettability, adhesion and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Colloids Surf B 135:386–393View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reyes J, Brès EF (2015) Electron microscopic study of the human tooth enamel: the central dark line. Encyclopedia of Anal Chem 1:1–16Google Scholar
- Tsuda H, Arends J (1994) Orientational micro-Raman spectroscopy on hydroxyapatite single crystals and human enamel crystallites. J Dent Res 73:1703–1710Google Scholar
- Nagaprasad P, Pravas KP, Amita P (2010) Room temperature synthesis of highly hemocompatible Hydroxyapatite, study of their physical properties and spectroscopic correlation of particle size. Nanoscale 2:2631–2638Google Scholar
- Baldino L, Naddeo F, Cardea S, Naddeo A, Reverchon E (2015) FEM modeling of the reinforcement mechanism of hydroxyapatite in PLLA scaffolds produced by supercritical drying, for tissue engineering applications. Int J Biol Macromol 51:225–236Google Scholar
- Ito Y, Hasuda H, Kamitakahara M, Ohtsuki C, Tanihara M, Kang IK, Kwon H (2005) A composite of hydroxyapatite with electrospun biodegradable nanofibers as a tissue engineering material. J Biosci Bioeng 100:43–49View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang S, Prabhakaran MP, Qin X, Ramakrishna (2015) Biocomposite scaffolds for bone regeneration: role of chitosan and hydroxyapatite within poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate on mechanical properties and in vitro evaluation. J Mech Behav Biomed 51:88–98View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ryu J, Ku SH, Lee M, Park CB (2011) Bone-like peptide/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites assembled with multi-level hierarchical structures. Soft Matter 7:7125–7568View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen JD, Wang Y, Chen X (2009) In situ fabrication of nano-hydroxyapatite in a macroporous chitosan scaffold for tissue engineering. J Biomater Sci 20:1555–1565View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao CX, Yu L, Middelberg AP (2013) Magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles end-capped with hydroxyapatite for pH-responsive drug release. J Mater Chem B 1:4828View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao XY, Ying JZ, Chen F, Lu BQ, Wu J (2013) Nanosheet-assembled hierarchical nanostructures of hydroxyapatite: surfactant-free microwave-hydrothermal rapid synthesis, protein/DNA adsorption and pH-controlled release. CrystEngComm 15:206View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ribeiro M, Monteiro FJ, Ferraz MP (2012) Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to nanohydroxyapatite in the presence of model proteins. Biomed Mater 7:045010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Antunez EE, Campos J, Basurto MA, Agarwal V (2014) Controlled morphology and optical properties of n-type porous silicon: effect of magnetic field and electrode-assisted LEF. Nanos Res Let 9(1):512View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Santana Vázquez M, Estevez O, Ascencio-Aguirre F, Mendoza-Cruz R, Bazán-Díaz L, Zorrila C, Herrera-Becerra R (2016) Tannic acid assisted synthesis of flake-like hydroxyapatite nanostructures at room temperature. Appl Phys A 122:868View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bakan F, Laçin O, Sarac H (2013) A novel low temperature sol–gel synthesis process for thermally stable nano crystalline hydroxyapatite. Powder Technol 233:295–302View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Paz A, Guadarrama D, López M, González J, Brizuela N, Aragón J (2012) A comparative study of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by different routes. Quim Nova 35:1724–1727View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koutsopoulos S (2002) Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite crystals: a review study on the analytical methods. J Biomed Mater Res 62:600–612View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nelson DG, Williamson BE (1982) Low-temperature laser Raman spectroscopy of synthetic carbonated apatites and dental enamel. Aust J Chem 35:715–727View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Silva CC, Pinheiro AG, Miranda MAR, Góes JC, Sombra ASB (2003) Structural properties of hydroxyapatite obtained by mechanosynthesis. Solid State Sci 5:553–558View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li H, Ng BS, Khor KA, Cheang P, Clyne TW (2004) Raman spectroscopy determination of phases within thermal sprayed hydroxyapatite splats and subsequent in vitro dissolution examination. Act Mater 52:445–453View ArticleGoogle Scholar