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Fig. 1 | Nanoscale Research Letters

Fig. 1

From: Mechanism of Fluorescence Enhancement of Biosynthesized XFe2O4–BiFeO3 (X = Cr, Mn, Co, or Ni) Membranes

Fig. 1

a Illustration of synthesis process of XFO–BFO membrane and its microscope picture (5 × 5 mm2). During the synthesis process, the first step is that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 possesses a periplasmic [Fe]-hydrogenase that drives the microbial reduction of Fe3+ [Fe(OH)3: cuboid] and the release of Fe2+ ions to the aqueous solution. The second step is that the =Fe2+(OH)2 surfaces can absorb and immobilize X2+. The third step is that the functional =Fe2+(OH)2 groups provide high surface area and functional sites which allow the chemical complexation of X2+ [21, 22]. b SEM images (200 nm) of XFO–BFO membranes

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