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Table 1 Plant response to some metal oxide nanoparticles

From: Plant Response to Engineered Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

Nanoparticle Size (nm) Plant Concentration Plant response Key references
CeO2 7 Soybean 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 mg/L Genotoxicity recoded at 2000 and 4000 mg/L concentration; a new band in the roots’ RAPD profile was observed [47]
7 Alfalfa, corn, cucumber, tomato 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 mg/L In corn, tomato and cucumber seed germination was reduced at 2000 mg/L; promoted root elongation for corn and cucumber; reduced root growth of alfalfa and tomato [60]
8.0 ± 1.0 Coriander 125 mg/kg Increased shoot, root length and biomass; increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots and catalase activity in shoots [175]
<8.0 ± 1.0 Rice 0, 62.50, 125, 250, 500 mg/L Reduced H2O2 generation in shoots and roots; increased electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation in shoots [35]
8 ± 1 Corn 0, 400, 800 mg/kg No impact on chlorophyll contents and gas exchange [176]
8 ± 1 Barley 0, 125, 250, 500 mg/kg Increased the plant height, chlorophyll contents, biomass, reduced spike production; increased Ca, K, Zn, Mg, Cu, Al, Fe, P and S in grains [57]
8 ± 1 Wheat 0, 100, 400 mg/kg Changes in microstructure of leaf cells, swollen chloroplasts, squeezed nuclei, bent and loosely arranged thylakoids; decreased chlorophyll contents and exhibits variation in protein content [177]
10 ± 3.2 Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic cotton 0, 100, 500 mg/L Swollen and destructed chloroplasts, reduced Zn, Mg, Fe and P levels in xylem sap of cotton [178]
50–105 Tomato 20 mg/kg Increased Ca, K, Mg, P in roots; Ca, Mg in stems; decreased Na contents stems; K, Na, P and S in leaves [58]
8 ± 1 Wheat 0, 125, 250, 500 mg/L Changes the amounts S and Mn in grains, amino acid composition and linolenic acid contents [179]
ZnO 8 Soybean 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 mg/L No change in germination; genotoxicity recoded at 4000 mg/L concentration; a new band in the roots’ RAPD profile was observed [47]
10 Soybean 0–500 mg/kg Reduced Fe at all treatments; Mg and K were decreased at 500 mg Zn/kg treatment [180]
<50 Soybean 500 mg/kg Reduced roots and shoots; had smaller surface area and volume; no seed formation [181]
20 Radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, cucumber 2000 mg/L Reduced root growth and elongation [19]
<10 Zucchini 1000 mg/L Reduced biomass (78–90%) [182]
10 Cucumber 400–800 mg/kg No impact on growth, gas exchange or chlorophyll contents [183]
90 Corn 800 mg/kg Reduced growth and inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [184]
10 Alfalfa 250, 500, 750 mg/kg Reduced root biomass (80%) [185]
44.4 Arabidopsis 400, 2000, 4000 mg/L Reduced seed germination, root elongation and number of leaves [93]
<100 Arabidopsis 100 mg/L Reduced biomass (81.4%), seed germination, 660 up-regulated genes and 826 down-regulated genes [92]
<50 Garden pea 100–1000 mg/L No impact on germination; root length, stem length, leaf surface area, transpiration and root nodulation was affected [186]
1.2–6.8 Clusterbean 10 mg/L Increased biomass (27.1%), shoot length, root length, root area, chlorophyll content and total soluble leaf protein [98]
25 Tomato 0–1000 mg/L Plant height was increased (24%) at 250 mg ZnO/Kg; increased root length in foliar sprayed plants with 250 mg ZnO/L; concentrations above 250 mg ZnO/kg affected root length in both methods of application [99]
<100 Wheat 50 mg/kg Reduced biomass [103]
<100 Wheat 500 mg/kg Reduced root growth, increased reactive oxygen species production [187]
CuO <50 Arabidopsis 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg/L Reduced biomass, root growth retardation, increased reactive oxygen species production [116]
<50 Indian mustard 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400, 500 mg/L Reduced shoot and root growth [128]
10–50 Mung bean 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 mg/L Reduced biomass and root length at all concentrations; reduced chlorophyll content above 100 mg/L; no changes in carotenoid content; increased H2O2 and lipid peroxidation; increased reactive oxygen species production with increase in concentration; modulations in gene expression [127]
<50 Wheat 500 mg/kg Inhibition in root and shoot growth; produced oxidative stress possibly due to Cu released from nanoparticles, Cu bioaccumulates [187]
<50 Squash 0, 100, 500 mg/L Reduced growth and transpiration (60–70%) [188]
<100 Radish, grasses 10, 100, 500, 1000 mg/L Growth inhibition; DNA damage [21]
TiO2/inorganic bentonite clay 30/1–60 Maize 300, 1000 mg/L Inhibited hydraulic conductivity, leaf growth and transpiration [65]
Activated carbon-based TiO2 30–50 Tomato 0–500 mg/L Improved germination, reduced germination time [189]
30–50 Mung bean 0–500 mg/L Improved germination, reduced germination time [189]
TiO2 Soybean 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05% Increased height (0.05%) and dry weight [190]
<100 Wheat ~91 mg/kg Reduced biomass, nanoparticles found mostly stick on surface of roots [103]
<25 Tobacco 0, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5% Reduced biomass, inhibited germination and root length; upregulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and ascorbate peroxidase [191]
4–6 Spinach 0.25% Improved growth; increased glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamic piruvic transaminase activity [146]
7–40 Chickpea 2–10 mg/kg Reduction in electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content at 5 mg/kg treatment [192]
6.22 Ulmus elongata 0.1–0.4% Increased Cu accumulation in leaves; reduced net photosynthetic rate; increased carbohydrates and lipids [193]
27 ± 4 Cucumber 0, 250, 500, 750 mg/kg Enhanced catalase; activity in leaves; enhanced P and K availability in fruit [194]
Fe3O4 20 Pumpkin 500 mg/L No toxic effect; nanoparticles are translocated throughout the plant tissues, detected in stem and leaves, accumulated on the surface of root [46]
7 Cucumber, lettuce 62, 100, 116 mg/L Low to zero toxicity on germination [195]
6 Lettuce, radish, cucumber, spinach, tomato, leek, peppers 0.67 mg/mL Reduced germination [196]
25 Ryegrass, pumpkin 30, 100 and 500 mg/L Increased root elongation; no uptake; block of aquaporins; oxidative stress [32]
Fe2O3 20–100 Sunflower 50, 100 mg/L No uptake and translocation; reduced root hydraulic conductivity [158]
22–67 Arabidopsis 4 mg/kg Reduced biomass and chlorophyll contents [197]
Soybean 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 g/L Increased leaf and pod dry weight; increased grain yield (48%) [167]
246 Lettuce, radish, cucumber 1000 mg/L Found to be adsorb on the surface of seed [198]
Al2O3 13 Maize, cucumber, carrots, cabbage 2000 mg/L Reduced root growth [168]
Corn 2000 mg/L Reduced root length [19]
Tobacco 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1% Increased root length, biomass; decreased leaf count; the seedlings significantly decreased; 1% Al2O3 exposure has shown extreme increase in microRNA expression [171]