Spectroscopy of the Surface Polaritons in the CdXZn(1−X)P2 Solid Solutions
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 30 December 2016
Accepted: 31 January 2017
Published: 6 February 2017
Here we report on the analysis of the effect of the doping of CdP2 single crystals by ZnP2 nanoclusters on the dispersion of the surface polaritons (SP). The ATR spectroscopic technique has been applied to excite the SP in the CdXZn(1−X)P2 system. Analysis of the obtained spectra has shown that the doping of CdP2 single crystals by ZnP2 nanoclusters result in the position and the width of the dispersion branches of the SP. This effect is more pronounced in the low frequency dispersion branches. These SP branches are originated from phonons which correspond to the motion of the cation sublattice.
KeywordsNanocluster Solid solution Vibrational properties Surface polaritons ATR
The recent interest to exploring the properties of zinc and cadmium diphosphides ZnP2 and CdP2 is caused by the possibility of employing them in various devices, such as, temperature detectors, deflectometers of laser beams, photoconducting cells, magnetic sensors, extenders, and stabilizers of laser radiation, photovoltaic applications [1, 2]. Vibrational properties of ZnP2 and CdP2 have been previously reported in [3–6] in the wide temperature range. The effect of the doping of CdP2 by ZnP2 nanoclusters on the vibrational properties of the resulting solid solutions of CdXZn(1−X)P2 have recently been presented in . According to the technology of the obtaining CdXZn(1−X)P2 solid solutions, most of the ZnP2 nanoclusters are located in the near surface area. It has been shown , that surface polaritons are very sensitive to the presence of the surface defects and impurities. The dispersion and the damping of surface polaritons, that are localized in a thin surface layer with the thickness of the order of the reciprocal value of the damping constant, are very sensitive to the characteristics of the surface including the structure of the crystal and its relief . It was shown that the optical spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique to study the properties of complex structures [10, 11], and the most efficient way to obtain the data on the dispersion of SP in solid solutions is employing ATR technique, as it has been shown in  for Ga1−xAlxAs and GaAsxP1−x. Thus, present work is aimed to study the influence of ZnP2 nanoclusters on the dispersion of the SP in CdXZn(1−X)P2 solid solutions. This might provide information on the distribution of the ZnP2 nanoclusters in the host CdP2 that can be useful for employing CdXZn(1-X)P2 in the construction of the optoelectronic devices.
The paper consists of the following parts: Introduction briefly represents the previous results and describes the motivation of the research. Experimental section procedures work, we describe the experimental procedures, such as preparing the samples, optical spectra measurements, and their treatment. In the Results and Discussion section we describe the influence of the doping CdP2 by the ZnP2 nanoclusters on the dispersion of SP in CdXZn(1−X)P2 by the analysis of the systematic changes in the ATR spectra. In Conclusions section we summarize obtained results.
CdP2 in the polycrystalline form was grown from the initial elements by two-temperature way and then was used to grow single crystals of CdP2. The CdXZn(1−X)P2 solid solution was obtained in the following way: Zn was deposited on the surface of the CdP2 single crystal and then annealed in the oven at the temperature of 650 °C for 600 h. The CdXZn(1−X)P2 system is a CdP2 single crystal with inclusions of tetragonal ZnP2 with size of up to 100 nm . The concentration of ZnP2 nanoclusters has been controlled by XRF, and in the studied CdXZn(1−X)P2 sample it was x = 0.9991. As a reference, in this work we also used pure CdP2 (x = 1) samples. All studied samples were in the shape of plates with a size of 2 × 3 × 1 mm.
The ATR spectra of the SP were recorded in the usual manner in the 150 − 500 cm−1 frequency range. In the experiments, we used p-polarized radiation and spectrometers KSDI-82 equipped with ATR unit LOMO NPVO-1 as well as Bruker IFS 88 equipped with Perkin Elmer ATR unit. CsI semicylinder served as ATR element in both cases. ATR spectra were recorded with several angles of the incidence of the radiation in the range of 40–60°. The polystyrene spacers were used to make an air gap between the investigated sample and the semicylinder, it was varied from 6 to 8 μ.
Results and Discussion
The position and width of the reststrahlen bands in CdXZn(1−X)P2
x = 1
x = 0.9991
ν 1, cm−1
ν 1, cm−1
We applied the spectroscopy of the SP to study the effect of the doping of CdP2 by ZnP2 nanoclusters on the properties of the near surface area of CdXZn(1−X)P2 solid solution. Presence of ZnP2 nanoclusters in the near surface area of CdXZn(1−X)P2 causes shift of the reststrahlen bands as well as the shortening of their widths. This finding is confirmed by the observed evolution of the dispersion of the SP in CdXZn(1−X)P2. With obtained results, we have shown that the spectroscopy of the SP might be used as a non-destructive method of the property control of the near surface area of CdXZn(1−X)P2.
One of the authors (KS) gratefully acknowledges the support from the Polish Academy of Sciences.
TS and VT prepared the samples, KS, TB, and JB performed the measurements. KS, JB, TS, VT, TB, and EV discussed the results. KS analyzed the experimental data and drafted the manuscript. VT and JB helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Marenkin SF, Trukhan VM (2010) Phosphides and arsenides of Zn and Cd. IP A.N. Varaksin, MinskGoogle Scholar
- Stepanchikov D, Shutov S (2006) Cadmium phosphide as a new material for infrared converters. Semicond Physics, Quantum Electron Optoelectron 9:40–44Google Scholar
- Shportko KV, Izotov AD, Trukhan VM et al (2014) Effect of temperature on the region of residual rays of CdP2 and ZnP2 single crystals. Russ J Inorg Chem 59:986–991. doi:https://doi.org/10.1134/S0036023614090204 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baran J, Pasechnik YA, Shportko KV, Trzebiatowska-Gusowska M, Venger EF (2006) Raman and FIR reflection spectroscopy of ZnP2 and CdP2 single crystals. J Mol Struct 792–793:239–242. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2006.01.068 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shportko KV, Rückamp R, Trukhan VM, Shoukavaya TV (2014) Reststrahlen of CdP2 single crystals at low temperatures. Vib Spectrosc 73:111–115. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2014.05.001 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shportko KV, Pasechnik YA, Wuttig M, Rueckamp R, Trukhan VM, Haliakevich TV (2009) Plasmon–phonon contribution in the permittivity of ZnP2 single crystals in FIR at low temperatures. Vib Spectrosc 50:209–213. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2008.11.006 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shportko K, Shoukavaya T, Trukhan V et al (2016) The role of ZnP2 nanoclusters in the vibrational properties of Cd x Zn(1 − x)P2 solid solutions. Nanoscale Res Lett 11:423. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-016-1635-y View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Goncharenko AV, Gorea OS, Dmitruk NL et al (2001) Dielectric response function of GaPAs solid solutions in the vibrational absorption region. Tech Phys 46:968–976. doi:https://doi.org/10.1134/1.1395117 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dmitruk NL (1982) Surface Polariton Spectroscopy As a Method of Studying the Structure of the Interfaces. In: Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal., p 269Google Scholar
- Hadzaman I, Klym H, Shpotyuk O, Brunner M (2010) Temperature sensitive spinel-type ceramics in thick-film multilayer performance for environment sensors. Acta Phys Pol A 117:234–237View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karbovnyk I, Bolesta I, Rovetskii I et al (2014) Studies of CdI2-Bi3 microstructures with optical methods, atomic force microscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Mater Sci. doi:https://doi.org/10.2478/s13536-014-0215-z Google Scholar
- Otto A (1968) Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection. Zeitschrift fuer Phys 216:398–410. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01391532 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aleinikova KB, Kozlov AI, Kozlova SG, Sobolev VV (2002) Electronic and crystal structures of isomorphic ZnP2 and CdP2. Phys Solid State 44:1257–1262. doi:https://doi.org/10.1134/1.1494619 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gorban IS, Gorinya VA, Dashkovskaya RA, Lugovoi VI, Makovetskaya AP, Tychina II (1978) One and two-phonon states in tetragonal ZnP2 and CdP2 crystals. Phys Stat Sol (b) 86:419–424View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jayaraman A, Maines RG, Chattopadhyay T (1986) Effect of high pressure on the vibrational modes and the energy gap of ZnP2. Pramana - J Phys 27:291–297View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shanker J, Agrawal SC, Lashkari AKG (1978) Electronic polarizabilities of ions in the chalcogenides of Zn and Cd. Solid State Commun 26:675–677. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-1098(78)90717-2 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shportko K, Barlas T, Venger E et al (2016) Influence of the temperature on the dispersion of the surface polaritons in Zn3P2 - Material for the photovoltaic applications. Curr Appl Phys 16:8–11View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shportko KV, Otto A, Venger EF (2016) Dispersion of phonon surface polaritons in ZnGeP2: anisotropy and temperature impacts. Nanoscale Res Lett 11:76. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-016-1270-7 View ArticleGoogle Scholar