In Vitro Investigation of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composites Based on Biogenic Hydroxyapatite or Synthetic Calcium Phosphates
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 26 December 2016
Accepted: 10 January 2017
Published: 10 February 2017
This in vitro investigation of the behavior of two types of calcium phosphate glass ceramics on the basis of phosphates of biogenic or synthetic origin prepared from initial mixtures with different particle size has revealed that some different factors affect the behavior, namely the phase composition of composite, fraction of open porosity, and average diameter of pore channels. It was established that the solubility of the composites on the basis of synthetic calcium phosphates and glass after 2 and 7 days contact with saline composites is the highest among the materials under study. First of all, this fact is related to the peculiarities of their phase composition, high fraction of open porosity, and high permeability. As for biogenic hydroxyapatite/glass materials, their solubility is several times lower in spite of close total porosity. The particle size of initial mixture practically does not affect the material solubility; the latter is only slightly lower for smaller particles.
KeywordsHydroxyapatite Calcium phosphate Glass Composite Porosity In vitro Solubility
Nowadays, regenerative medicine is one of the most developing trends in current science. One of its trends is the development of bioactive materials for replacement of defective areas of bone tissue [1–23]. Hydroxyapatite (HA), (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), is an analog of mineral component of human bone tissue. As it is HA that possesses high biocompatibility with human organism, many of the current biomaterial substitutes for bone tissue are various composites on the basis of HA and/or other calcium phosphate materials such as β-tricalciumphosphate (β-TCP), β-Ca3(PO4)2, calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7), tetracalciumphosphate (TTCP), and Ca4(PO4)2O). [1–4]. Calcium phosphates are known to take a particular position among implant materials of various types used in replacement of bone tissue thanks to the fact that during degradation they can be used for formation of new bone tissue . HA may be of synthetic (SHA) or biogenic (BHA) origin, herein the latter is a natural nanostructured material that keeps polyporous micro- and nanostructure of natural bone tissue [5, 6, 20, 21]. Besides, bioactive glass exhibits biological activity as well and is capable to resorb and be replaced with newly formed bone tissue [7–9]; so does bioglass ceramic [17–19].
By today, there have been developed a number of composite materials based on HA and glass (HA/glass), where SHA and BHA as well as other materials on the basis of calcium and phosphor are used as a calcium phosphate component [10–15, 20–22]. All bioactive materials after implantation resorb with a definite rate (depending on the phase composition and structure) followed by replacement of them with newly formed bone tissue. Furthermore, bioceramics characterized by controlled resorption rate can be successfully used as carriers for local drug delivery .
In 2010, Marc Bohner described two main approaches used in control of the resorption rate of implant materials for replacement of bone tissue . One is based on the material pore structure modification, in particular on the presence of big enough interconnected pores and channels. Such a porous structure may permit penetration of bone cells, including cell precursors of bone tissue, into blood vessels and thus makes it possible for a material to steadily resorb and so to form new bone tissue. The other approach is based on the chemical composition of material which can modify as well. For instance, over recent years in the field of calcium phosphate materials, interest has shifted from sintered HA to more thermodynamically reactive compounds such as HA/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), β-TCP, α-TCP, octocalciumphosphate, dehydrate-dicalcium phosphate, and waterless dicalcium phosphate.
Also, Marc Bohner has indicated that the mechanism of material resorption may be different . Some materials such as HA and β-TCP dissolve under the action of osteoclasts (cells participating in permanent remodeling a human skeleton) and can release some amount of hydrochlonic acid onto the surface of material, which provokes local pH change and calcium phosphate dissolution. Materials of complex composition can resorb through a combination of some mechanisms, which may be inherent for calcium phosphate ceramics or composite ceramics. Among them, namely calcium phosphates, for example HA and β-TCP, are characterized by the presence of self-controlling mechanism during cell resorption of material, which consists in releasing calcium ions and phosphate ions under the action of osteoclasts, which reduces their activity.
To sum up, important properties of a bioactive material are as follows: chemical composition, porosity, and its structure as they significantly affect the behavior of the material under the in vivo conditions. A starting stage of estimation of material bioactivity is in vitro investigation of the material behavior under the conditions of direct contact with a model medium that is an analog of internal medium of organism. As usual, saline and blood serum are used as such model media. There have been developed various procedures for estimation of bioactivity of new materials in these media, starting from studies of change in model medium pH during its contact with a material and material dissolution via weight control during some time.
The aim of the work is to investigate in vitro the behavior of two types of calcium phosphate ceramics on the basis of phosphates of biogenic and synthetic origin with different particle size of initial mixture, which can make it possible to compare the structural and chemical approaches in developing biomaterials.
Bioactive glass-ceramic composites based on nanostructured biogenic hydroxyapatite (BHA) or synthetic calcium phosphates mixture (SCPM) with addition of sodium borosilicate glass (mass% 49.10 SiO2; 28.14 Na2O; 22.76 B2O3) were prepared as described in [22, 23]. Glass-ceramic composite HA/glass materials were produced using powders of nanostructured BHA (or SCPM) and sodium borosilicate glass with a mass ratio of 0.46:1.0. Powder mixture for SCP/glass composites were produced by mixing sodium borosilicate glass and SCPM (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, Ca2P2O7, Ca4(PO4)2O and Ca2P2O7) powders (<160 μm). To prepare a BHA/glass mixture, BHA and sodium borosilicate glass were used with two different particle sizes: namely <50 μm (composite BHA/glass-50) and <160 μm (composite BHA/glass). Compact samples of 3 g and 15 mm diameter were fabricated by dry pressing under a pressure of 150 MPa and sintering at 800 °C for all composites studied.
The structure of the composites was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using a REM-106I (VAT SELMI, Ukraine) microscope and analyzed with the special material science complex program for analysis of structure images SIAMS-600 (SIAMS-Ltd, Russia).
where ρ ap is the apparent density, grams per cubic centimeter;
ρ pikn is the pycnometric density of compact material, grams per cubic centimeter.
For BHA ρ pikn = 3.00 g/cm3.
where m is the sample weight in air, grams;
m 1 is the saturated sample weight in air, grams;
m 2 is the saturated sample weight in water, grams;
ρ w is the density of water, grams per cubic centimeter;
ρ liq is the density of the saturating liquid (ethylene), grams per cubic centimeter.
where Θ op is the open porosity;
r is the pore channel radius;
δ is the tortuosity of capillary-porous structure.
Based on the data on pore distribution obtained in examination of microstructure of various glass ceramics, average diameters of pore channels of capillary-porous structures were determined. Taking into account the results for pore size distribution, in further calculations, average diameters for the fracture surface were used as most explicit ones.
In Vitro Bioactivity Testing
Investigation of solubility in vitro of porous samples was carried out in an isotonic saline solution (0.9% NaCl) at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:30 after 2 and 7 days exposition in a thermostat at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C followed by determination of mass loss on an analytic balance “OHAUS Pioneer PA214C” (“OHAUS Corporation,” China) with an accuracy of 0.0001 g.
Results and Discussion
In determination of solubility in vitro, also of importance is the permeability of porous structure, which depends rather on open porosity, which is effective during material impregnation, and the construction of capillary-porous channels, characterized by high tortuosity, than on the porosity as a whole and the structure of pores. Generally, the permeability of structure is determined by the permeability coefficient, which significantly influences the mass transport rate in determination of the dissolution rate in vitro.
The average diameters of pore channels established through examination of microstructure and pore size distribution were equal to 4.6, 4.7, and 8.83 μm for BHA/glass-50, BHA/glass, and SCP/glass, respectively.
For limit cases:
(1) at δ2/δ1 = 1, k 1/k 2 = (0.026 × (4.6)2)/(0.045 × (4.7)2) = 0.553;
(2) at δ2/δ1 = 1.5, k 1/k 2 = (0.026 × (4.6)2) × 1.5/(0.045 × (4.7)2) = 0.829.
The relations give k 1 = 0.553 × k 2 and k 1 = 0.829 × k 2 for (1) and (2) cases, respectively.
For a tortuosity of δ = 1.2–1.6, calculation yields k 2 = (0.045 × (4.7)2/4)/(8 × 1.2) = 0.026 μm2, herein k 1 for the structure BHA/glass-50 is lower, namely within k 1 = 0.553 × 0.026 = 0.014 μm2 (1); k 1 = 0.829 × 0.026 = 0.021 μm2 (2).
For the capillary-porous structure of the SCP/glass composite where open porosity dominates (24.1%), at different values of tortuosity, the permeability is equal to k 3 = (0.241 × (8.83)2/4)/(8 × 1.2) = 0,489 μm2 and k 3 = (0.241 × (8.83)2/4)/(8 × 1.6) = 0.367 μm2.
As seen, in the case of similar tortuosity, the permeability of the SCP/glass composites is much higher as compared to the other structures studied (k 3/ k 2 = 0.489/0.026 ≈ 19), which is a significant factor, in addition to the composite phase composition, for interpretation of different behavior of porous materials after saturation and solution in vitro.
Generally, concerning changes in saline pH due to contact with composite samples, the following conclusion can be drawn: SCP/glass composites promote more rapid and marked change in saline pH than BHA/glass composites do, which is conditioned, to addition to other important factors, by more complex phase composition, including the presence of various phases of calcium phosphate (calcium silicate, sodium calcium silicates, melilite, sodium silicate, sodium borate, HA), some of which possess higher solubility as compared to BHA. This is consistent with the data of , where the solubility orders: glassy phase > CaSiO3 > α-Ca3(PO4)2 > β-Ca3(PO4)2, that is the presence of CaSiO3 in SCP/glass composite promotes an increase in the dissolution rate. This fact may be responsible for the pH sharp increase in SCP/glass composites after 48 h and its further slight decrease, because high-solubility phases dissolve earlier.
Moreover, it was established that at a higher solubility of SCP/glass composites as a whole, the highest solubility was fixed for 2 days saline exposition. After 7 days, this parameter decreased by three times. Unlikely, solubility of BHA/glass composites increased with increasing the time of contact with saline, which can be conditioned by the peculiarities of composite pore structure as well.
In vitro investigation of two types of calcium phosphate ceramics of biogenic and synthetic origin with different particle size of initial mixture has shown that several different factors influence the behavior of composites during dissolution in vitro. The following factors significantly influence the solubility of composite materials with close composition and different type of calcium phosphate component under the same conditions: phase composition, total porosity, fraction of open porosity, and average diameter of pore channels.
Investigation of composite solubility in vitro after 2 and 7 days contact with saline has established that SCP/glass composites have the highest solubility among materials studied. First of all, this may be related to the peculiarities of their phase composition, high fraction of open porosity, and high permeability. The solubility of BHA/glass composites is several times lower despite the fact that their total porosity is close to that of SCP/glass materials. The particle size of initial mixture practically does not affect the solubility of BHA/glass composites but it is slightly lower for composites with lower particle size (<50 μm). The highest solubility was fixed within 2 days contact with saline, and after 7 days, this parameter decreased by three times. In contrast, solubility of BHA/glass composites increases with increasing the contact time, which may be assigned to the peculiarities of the composite pore structure.
The carried out investigation has demonstrated that the studied composites meet all of the principal requirements for implant materials and are promising in replacement of bone tissue. In particular, SCP/glass materials may be recommended as carriers of drugs when it is necessary to release high doses of drugs, for example antibiotics, during first 2 days after operation. As for BHA/glass materials, they are promising for application as carriers when it is necessary to prolong release of drugs.
OP prepared the samples, OP and OS perfomed the measurements. OP, NP and OS discussed the results. NP and OP analysed the experimental data and drafted the manuscript. OS helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Bohner M (2010) Resorbable biomaterials as bone graft substitutes. Mater Today 13:24–30View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stevens MM (2008) Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Mater Today 11:18–5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dorozhkin SV (2009) Calcium orthophosphates in nature. Biol Med Mater 2:399–8Google Scholar
- Habraken W, Habibovic P, Epple M, Bohner M (2016) Calcium phosphates in biomedical applications: materials for the future? Mater Today 19:69–7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou H, Lee J (2011) Nanoscale hydroxyapatite particles for bone tissue engineering. Acta Biomater 7:2769–1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mondala S, Pala U, Deyb A (2016) Natural origin hydroxyapatite scaffold as potential bone tissue engineering substitute. Ceram Int 42:18338–6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rahaman MN, Sonny Bal SB, Huang W (2014) Review: emerging developments in the use of bioactive glasses for treating infected prosthetic joints. Mater Sci Eng C 41:224–1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miguez-Pacheco V, Hench LL, Boccaccini AR (2015) Bioactive glasses beyond bone and teeth: Emerging applications in contact with soft tissues. Acta Biomater 13:1–5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rahaman MN, Day DE, Sonny Bal SB, Fu Q, Jung SB, Bonewald LF, Tomsia AP (2011) Bioactive glass in tissue engineering. Acta Biomater 7:2355–3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Afonso A, Santos JD, Vasconcelos M, Branco R, Cavalheiro J (1996) Granules of osteopatite and glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite implanted in rabbit tibiae. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 7:507–10Google Scholar
- Goller G, Demirkıran H, Oktar FN, Demirkesen E (2003) Processing and characterization of bioglass reinforced hydroxyapatite composites. Ceram Int 29:721–4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ivanchenko LA, Pinchuk ND (2003) Making calcium phosphate biomaterials. Powder Metall Met Ceram 42:357–1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Georgiou G, Knowles JC, Barralet JE, Kong YM, Kim HE (2004) The effect of hot pressing on the physical properties of glass reinforced hydroxyapatite. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 15:705–10Google Scholar
- Behnamghader A, Bagheri N, Raissi B, Moztarzadeh F (2008) Phase development and sintering behaviour of biphasic HA-TCP calcium phosphate materials prepared from hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 19:197–1Google Scholar
- Zarifah NA, Matori KA, Sidek HAA, Wahab ZA, MohdSalleh MA, Zainuddin N, Khiri MZA, Farhana NS, Omar NAS (2016) Effect of hydroxyapatite reinforced with 45S5 glass on physical, structural and mechanical properties. Procedia Chem 19:30–7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sapkal PS, Kuthe AM, Kashyap RS, Nayak AR, Kuthe SA, Kawle AP (2016) Indirect fabrication of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for osseous tissue formation using additive manufacturing technology. J Porous Mater 23:1567–4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Salman SM, Salama SN, Abo-Mosallam HA (2015) The crystallization behavior and bioactivity of wollastonite glass-ceramic based on Na2O–K2O–CaO–SiO2–F glass system. J Asian Ceram Soc 3:255–1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stábile FM, Martinez Stagnaro SY, Ortiga J, Volzone C (2015) Production of porous scaffolds from Bioglass 45S5-derived glasses. Procedia Mater Sci 9:558–2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guerrero-Lecuona MC, Canillas M, Pena P, Rodríguez MA, De Aza AH (2015) Different in vitro behavior of two Ca3(PO4)2 based biomaterials, a glass-ceramic and a ceramic, having the same chemical composition. Bol SECV 54:181–8Google Scholar
- Sych O, Pinchuk N, Parkhomey A, Kuda A, Ivanchenko L, Skorokhod V, Vasylkiv O, Getman O, Sakka Y (2007) Morphology and properties of new porous biocomposites based on biogenic hydroxyapatite and synthetic calcium phosphates. Funct Mater 14:430–5Google Scholar
- Sych O, Pinchuk N (2007) Effect of type of calcium phosphate on microstructure and properties of glass reinforced biocomposites. Proc Appl Ceram 1:1–4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Parkhomey OR, Pinchuk ND, Sych OE, Tomila TV, Tovstonoh HB, Gorban’ VF, Yevych YI, Kuda OA (2016) Structural and mechanical properties of bioactive glass-ceramics composites. Powder Metall Met Ceram 55:172–4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Parkhomey O, Pinchuk N, Sych O, Tomila T, Kuda O, Tovstonoh H, Gorban' V, Kolesnichenko V, Evych Y (2016) Effect of particle size of starting materials on the structure and properties of biogenic hydroxyapatite/glass composites. Proc Appl Ceram 10:1–8View ArticleGoogle Scholar