- Nano Express
- Open Access

# Effects of Defects on the Mechanical Properties of Kinked Silicon Nanowires

- Yun Chen
^{1, 2, 3}Email authorView ORCID ID profile, - Cheng Zhang
^{3, 4}, - Liyi Li
^{3}, - Chia-Chi Tuan
^{3}, - Xin Chen
^{1, 2}Email author, - Jian Gao
^{1, 2}, - Yunbo He
^{1, 2}and - Ching-Ping Wong
^{3, 5}Email author

**Received:**3 February 2017**Accepted:**28 February 2017**Published:**9 March 2017

## Abstract

Kinked silicon nanowires (KSiNWs) have many special properties that make them attractive for a number of applications. The mechanical properties of KSiNWs play important roles in the performance of sensors. In this work, the effects of defects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs are studied using molecular dynamics simulations and indirectly validated by experiments. It is found that kinks are weak points in the nanowire (NW) because of inharmonious deformation, resulting in a smaller elastic modulus than that of straight NWs. In addition, surface defects have more significant effects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs than internal defects. The effects of the width or the diameter of the defects are larger than those of the length of the defects. Overall, the elastic modulus of KSiNWs is not sensitive to defects; therefore, KSiNWs have a great potential as strain or stress sensors in special applications.

## Keywords

- Kinked silicon nanowires
- Effects of defects
- Mechanical properties
- Molecular dynamics simulation

## Background

Kinked silicon nanowires (KSiNWs) can trap more photons [1], enhance thermal isolation [2–4], strengthen the strain effect [5, 6], and be feasible for biosensor detection [7–9], widely broadening its application areas [10–12]. However, such applications of KSiNWs are notably affected by their mechanical properties [13].

Several experimental and modeling studies have been conducted to identify the dependence of Young’s modulus and yield strength of nanowires (NWs) on factors including temperature, loading rate or strain rate, geometry, and size [14–18]. As KSiNWs are recently developed, only a few studies have reported their mechanical properties. Jiang et al. studied the size dependence of the Young’s modulus in KSiNWs using both molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and finite element methods and found that the Young’s modulus is sensitive to its arm length; specifically, it decreases rapidly with increasing arm length [19]. In addition, they also found that KSiNWs can behave like springs [5]. Jing et al. also studied the effects of geometry on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs and found that the fracture stress decreases as the periodic length increases [6]. These useful findings can provide insights into KSiNW fabrication and development of their applications.

However, KSiNWs—either grown by the classic metal catalytic vapor–liquid–solid method [10, 20–22] or fabricated by the newly developed metal-assisted chemical etching method [23]—usually have defects that may affect their functionality. As it is hard to control the location and size of the defect in a KSiNW—difficulties arise in terms of sample clamping, precise manipulation and alignment, and accurate measurement of the response (e.g., force, displacement) [15, 24]—little research about effects of defects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs has been reported. Herein, we report the effects of various defects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs by a molecular dynamics modeling study.

## Methods

*A*that consisted of 20 ml deionized (DI) water, 2 ml hydrogen peroxide (H

_{2}O

_{2}), and 10 ml hydrofluoric acid (HF) for 5 min, when straight NWs of length 2.5 μm were formed. Then, the Si was removed from etchant

*A*and immersed into another etchant solution

*B*that consisted of 15 ml DI water, 5 ml glycerol, 2 ml H

_{2}O

_{2}, and 10 ml HF for 10 min to form slanted NWs. Because the etching directions were different in the two etchants, kinks were formed at the joint of different crystallographic directions or some vector combinations of them. In this case, the straight and slanted etching direction are [100] and [21-1], respectively [23]. By repeating similar procedures

*A-B-A-B-A*, periodically, KSiNWs were fabricated that consisted mainly of three straight segments and two slanted segments with an angle of 54.8°.

To save computational time, the geometry size was scaled from the original. Each segment was about 5 nm in length. The cross section of each segment was 4 nm in diameter. The 3D simulation model was developed using the open-source software Lammps [26], as shown in Fig. 1c. There were 18,066 atoms for a perfect KSiNW.

From the scanning electron microscopy image (SEM, shown in Fig. 1b), cuboid-like defects can be seen in the NWs. The width of most defects is about one-third of the diameter of the KSiNWs. Therefore, in this work, various surface or internal defects were manually inserted depending on the conditions considered. The defect is denoted as location–width–length for simplification, e.g., the defect located in the middle of the third segment 0.5 nm in length and 1.0 nm in width is demonstrated as 3rd-W0.5-L1.0.

The periodic boundary condition was applied in the axial direction, and the free boundary condition was applied in the lateral direction. The atomic interactions were described using the Stillinger–Weber (SW) potential. The velocity–Verlet algorithm was employed to integrate the equations of motion. All molecular systems were equilibrated at a constant pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 0.01 K using a constant number of particles, volume, and temperature (NVT) for 10 ps with a time step of 2 fs. The strain was then applied along the uniaxial direction to perform uniaxial tensile tests. The applied strain rate was 0.00025/ps. The strain increment was applied to the structure after every 900,000 time steps. All MD simulations were carried out at 0.1 K, and the temperature was controlled employing the Nosé–Hoover thermostat.

## Results

It is hard to directly measure the mechanical properties of KSiNWs, especially in KSiNWs with defects. The mechanical properties of straight silicon NWs have been reported by many researchers. Therefore, to verify the model, a molecular dynamics model of straight NWs was also developed using the same parameters (with different geometry parameters) and the simulation results were compared with the reported ones.

*ε*< 3%) can be calculated as 106.44 GPa using the commonly used equation [27]. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results of 93–180 GPa [13–16].

Using the same method, the yield stress, yield strain, and elastic modulus of the KSiNWs can be identified as about 2.836 GPa, 0.104, and 29.987 GPa, respectively. It can be seen that all quantities are smaller than those of the straight NWs. This can be explained as follows:

_{1}Si4, ∠Si2O

_{1}Si3, and ∠Si3O

_{1}Si4 can decrease while only ∠Si1O

_{1}Si2 increases [28] (Fig. 4b). However, for the slanted segments whose crystalline directions are along the [112] direction, where the strain is applied along the [112] direction, the bond angles ∠Si1O

_{2}Si4 and ∠Si3O

_{2}Si4 can decrease while both ∠Si1O

_{2}Si2 and ∠Si2O

_{2}Si3 increase (Fig. 4c), resulting in inharmonious deformation in different segments and then initially fracturing at kinks (the junction of straight and slanted segments). Consequently, the kink introduces weaker points in the NWs because of inharmonious deformation, thus, KSiNWs are weaker than the straight NWs. Experimental results that KSiNWs break at kinks after external force excitation (Fig. 3b) also confirm this. The modeling and experimental results demonstrate that the model is accurate.

The fracture strain of straight NW is about 0.179, approaching the theoretical elastic limit of silicon (17 to 20%) [29]. No hardening phenomenon is observed after it yields. The fracture stress is the same as the yield stress (14.25 GPa) which is also consistent with the experimental value (~20 GPa) [29]. However, as the KSiNWs are more spring-like, their fracture strain increases 35.58 to 0.141%, and a small hardening is observed after it yields. Its fracture stress increases slightly to 2.857 GPa.

## Discussion

### Effects of Surface Defects on the Mechanical Properties of Kinked Nanowire

#### Size of the Defect

#### Location of the Defect

To study the effects of the location of the defect on the mechanical properties of the KSiNWs, the tensioning of NWs with defects in different segments was conducted. The locations of defects varied from the 1st to the 4th segment. Different sizes of defects with lengths ranging from 1.0 to 2 nm or widths from 0.5 to 1.5 nm were all considered, as shown in Fig. 5. Other geometry and simulation parameters were kept the same as the control case.

Conclusively, when the defect width is less than 12.5% of the diameter of the KSiNW (0.5 nm in this study), irrespective of the location and length, the influence of the defect on the elastic modulus of KSiNWs is negligible. The maximum reduction of elastic modulus is less than 10% even when the size of the defect increases notably to almost half of the diameter of the segment. This means that the elastic modulus is not sensitive to the defects. It also demonstrates that KSiNWs have a great potential as strain or stress sensors in some special applications, e.g., bio-sensors [7, 30, 31].

### Effects of Internal Defects on the Mechanical Properties of Kinked Nanowire

As in most cases, the fracture locations are in the middle of the KSiNWs (3rd segment). As a result, in this section, tensioning processes of KSiNWs with different internal defects at the 3rd segment were conducted. The diameter of the internal defect was varied as 0.5, 1, and 1.5 nm while the length varied as 1, 2, and 3 nm. For simplification, they were referred to as cases 1–9: diameter × length. All other modeling and simulation parameters were kept unchanged.

## Conclusions

In this work, a molecular dynamics model was developed to study the effects of defects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs. The simulation results were indirectly validated by experiments. It was found that KSiNWs are weaker than straight silicon NW as kinks introduce weaker points to the NWs. In addition, surface defects have more significant effects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs than internal defects. The width of a surface defect has a more significant effect on the mechanical properties of a KSiNW than the length of a surface defect. The diameter of the internal defects has a larger influence on the elastic modulus than that the length of the internal defect. In short, the elastic modulus of KSiNWs is not sensitive to the defects. Therefore, the KSiNWs have great potential in strain or stress sensors in special applications.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

The work presented in the paper is partially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (51605100, U1601202), Fund of Guangdong R&D Science and Technology (2016A010102016, 2016B090905001), National Science Foundation (CMMI 1130876), and Hong Kong Research Grants Council (RGC 417513, 14243616).

### Authors’ Contributions

YC carried out the experiments and drafted the manuscript. YC, CZ, LL, and CCT performed and analyzed the experiments. XC, JG, YH, and CPW contributed to the principal aspects and supervised the progress of the research. All authors reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

### Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

**Open Access**This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Khudiyev T, Bayindir M (2015) Nanosprings harvest light more efficiently. Appl Optics 54(26):8018–8023View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cook BG, Varga K (2011) Conductance of kinked nanowires. Appl Phys Lett 98(5):52104View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang J, Yang N, Wang B, Rabczuk T (2013) Modulation of thermal conductivity in kinked silicon nanowires: phonon interchanging and pinching effects. Nano Lett 13(4):1670–1674View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Park KH, Martin PN, Ravaioli U (2015) Electronic and thermal transport study of sinusoidally corrugated nanowires aiming to improve thermoelectric efficiency. Nanotechnology 27(3):35401View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang J, Rabczuk T (2013) Mechanical oscillation of kinked silicon nanowires: a natural nanoscale spring. Appl Phys Lett 102(12):123104View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jing Y, Zhang C, Liu Y, Guo L, Meng Q (2015) Mechanical properties of kinked silicon nanowires. Phys B Condens Matter 462:59–63View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zimmerman JF, Murray GF, Wang Y, Jumper JM, Austin JR, Tian B (2015) Free-standing kinked silicon nanowires for probing inter- and intracellular force dynamics. Nano Lett 15(8):5492–5498View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shin N, Chi M, Filler MA (2014) Interplay between defect propagation and surface hydrogen in silicon nanowire kinking superstructures. ACS Nano 8(4):3829–3835View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lieber CM (2011) Semiconductor nanowires: a platform for nanoscience and nanotechnology. MRS Bull 36(12):1052–1063View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tian B, Xie P, Kempa TJ, Bell DC, Lieber CM (2009) Single-crystalline kinked semiconductor nanowire superstructures. Nat Nanotechnol 4(12):824–829View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang A, Zheng G, Lieber CM. Emergence of nanowires. Switzerland: Springer; 2016.Google Scholar
- Yu P, Wu J, Liu S, Xiong J, Jagadish C, Wang ZM (2016) Design and fabrication of silicon nanowires towards efficient solar cells. Nano Today 11:704–737View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim YJ, Son K, Choi IC, Choi IS, Park WI, Jang JI (2011) Exploring nanomechanical behavior of silicon nanowires: AFM bending versus nanoindentation. Adv Funct Mater 21(2):279–286View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hsin CL, Mai W, Gu Y, Gao Y, Huang CT, Liu Y, Chen LJ, Wang ZL (2008) Elastic properties and buckling of silicon nanowires. Adv Mater 20(20):3919–3923View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song J, Wang X, Riedo E, Wang ZL (2005) Elastic property of vertically aligned nanowires. Nano Lett 5(10):1954–1958View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tabib-Azar M, Nassirou M, Wang R, Sharma S, Kamins TI, Islam MS, Williams RS (2005) Mechanical properties of self-welded silicon nanobridges. Appl Phys Lett 87(11):113102View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yan YD, Zhang JJ, Sun T, Fei WD, Liang YC, Dong S (2008) Nanobending of nanowires: a molecular dynamics study. Appl Phys Lett 93(24):241901View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kang K, Cai W (2010) Size and temperature effects on the fracture mechanisms of silicon nanowires: molecular dynamics simulations. Int J Plast 26(9):1387–1401View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang J, Zhao J, Rabczuk T (2013) Size-sensitive Young’s modulus of kinked silicon nanowires. Nanotechnology 24(18):185702View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu L, Jiang Z, Qing Q, Mai L, Zhang Q, Lieber CM (2013) Design and synthesis of diverse functional kinked nanowire structures for nanoelectronic bioprobes. Nano Lett 13(2):746–751View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Day RW, Mankin MN, Gao R, No Y, Kim S, Bell DC, Park H, Lieber CM (2015) Plateau–Rayleigh crystal growth of periodic shells on one-dimensional substrates. Nat Nanotechnol 10(4):345–352View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Panciera F, Norton MM, Alam SB, Hofmann S, Molhave K, Ross FM (2016) Controlling nanowire growth through electric field-induced deformation of the catalyst droplet. Nat Commun 7:12271View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Y, Li L, Zhang C, Tuan C, Chen X, Gao J, Wong C (2017) Controlling kink geometry in nanowires fabricated by alternating metal-assisted chemical etching. Nano Lett 17(2):1014–1019View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang ZL. Nanowires and nanobelts: materials, properties and devices. Volume 1: Metal and Semiconductor Nanowires. New York: Springer Science & Business Media; 2013Google Scholar
- Huang Z, Fang H, Zhu J (2007) Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays with controlled diameter, length, and density. Adv Mater 19(5):744–748View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Plimpton S (1995) Fast parallel algorithms for short-range molecular dynamics. J Comput Phys 117(1):1–19View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hopcroft MA, Nix WD, Kenny TW (2010) What is the Young’s Modulus of Silicon? J Microelectromech Syst 19(2):229–238View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jing Y, Meng Q, Gao Y (2009) Molecular dynamics simulation on the buckling behavior of silicon nanowires under uniaxial compression. Comput Mater Sci 45(2):321–326View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang H, Tersoff J, Xu S, Chen H, Zhang Q, Zhang K, Yang Y, Lee C, Tu K, Li J (2016) Approaching the ideal elastic strain limit in silicon nanowires. Sci Adv 2(8):e1501382View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang J (2015) Intrinsic twisting instability of kinked silicon nanowires for intracellular recording. Phys Chem Chem Phys 17(43):28515–28524View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang A, Lieber CM (2016) Nano-bioelectronics. Chem Rev 116(1):215–257View ArticleGoogle Scholar