Fabrication of TiO2 Nanosheet Aarrays/Graphene/Cu2O Composite Structure for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 8 March 2017
Accepted: 18 April 2017
Published: 26 April 2017
TiO2 NSAs/graphene/Cu2O was fabricated on the carbon fiber to use as photocastalysts by coating Cu2O on the graphene (G) decorated TiO2 nanosheet arrays (NSAs). The research focus on constructing the composite structure and investigating the reason to enhance the photocatalytic ability. The morphological, structural, and photocatalytic properties of the as-synthesized products were characterized. The experimental results indicate that the better photocatalytic performance is ascribed to the following reasons. First, the TiO2 NSAs/graphene/Cu2O composite structure fabricated on the carbon cloth can form a 3D structure which can provide a higher specific surface area and enhance the light absorption. Second, the graphene as an electron sink can accept the photoelectrons from the photoexcited Cu2O which will reduce the recombination. Third, the TiO2 nanosheet can provide more favorable carrier transportation channel which can reduce the recombination of carriers. Finally, the Cu2O can extend the light absorption range.
Recently, application of semiconductor photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2) in environmental purification has attracted great attention owing to its tremendous advantages, such as stability, nontoxicity, and low cost [1–3]. Based on the fact that photocatalytic reactions mainly take place on the surfaces of the photocatalysts, the morphology is the crucial factor to determine the efficiency . Up to now, many efforts have been made to fabricate TiO2 nanocrystals, nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes [5–8]. However, the application of TiO2 nanosheet arrays with larger specific surface area in photocatalytic degradation is rarely reported. Especially, TiO2 nanosheet arrays grown on the carbon cloth can construct three-dimensional (3D) structures to improve the specific surface area.
Unfortunately, the wide bandgap of TiO2 limits the effective absorption of visible light . In order to overcome the shortcoming, one strategy is to modify TiO2 with narrow bandgap semiconductors [10–12]. Among them, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) with narrow bandgap can be a promising candidate for expanding the absorption spectra range. [13–18] Moreover, the built-in electric field between P-type Cu2O and N-type TiO2 can accelerate the separation of carriers.
However, the poor interfacial feature between different semiconductors directly influences the separation efficiency of carriers. Therefore, the interfacial optimization is an effective way to enhance photocatalytic degradation efficiency [19, 20]. The previous researches indicate that graphene (G) shows excellent interfacial optimization function between different semiconductors due to its high conductivity and two-dimensional structure, which facilitates the interfacial contact and carrier transportation [21–25]. However, it is difficult to make graphene well disperse between different semiconductors. In this paper, a modified method is applied to fabricate the homogeneously dispersed G between TiO2 nanosheet and Cu2O.
Preparation of TiO2 NSAs/G/Cu2O
The fabrication of TiO2 NSAs is the following. TiO2 sol was prepared using a previously reported method . In brief, TiO2 seed layer was deposited on carbon cloth (2 cm × 3 cm) by immersing in TiO2 sol for 10 min. Then, the seed layer was calcined at 400 °C for 1 h. The Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave (100 mL in volume) filled with 40 mL of aqueous solution of 10 M NaOH and 0.2 g of activated carbon was placed in an oven at 180 °C for 24 h. After the autoclave cooled down to room temperature, the prepare samples were rinsed with DI water to remove the residual activated carbon, followed by soaking with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid for 1 h, then washed to neutral with DI water.
For the composite structure of TiO2 NSAs/G, 0.2 g of graphene replacing activated carbon was added into the Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave ethanol solution.
Cu2O layer was deposited by the following procedures. 2.3 mmol of Cu(CH3COO)2 and 2.3 mmol of CH3CONH2 were dissolved into 100 mL of diethylene glycol (DEG) under ultrasonication to prepare the reaction solution. Then, TiO2 NSAs or TiO2 NSAs/G substrate was immersed into the solution. Subsequently, it was heated to 120° under magnetic stirring and kept at this temperature for 6 h. After cooling down to room temperature in air, TiO2 or TiO2 NSAs/G substrate coated with Cu2O was washed with absolute ethanol and DI water for five times in sequence and dried in air.
The morphologies of the samples were investigated by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Quanta FEG250). The crystal structure of samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, D8 Advance) with Cu K α at λ = 0.15406 nm radiation. XPS spectra were recorded on a Thermo Fisher ESCALAB 250Xi system with Al Kα radiation, operated at 150 W. The absorption spectrum of the samples was measured using a UV–vis spectrophotometer (TU-1901). The Raman spectrum of the sample was characterized by Raman spectroscopy (LabRAM HR800).
Photocurrent density was measured using an electrochemical workstation (CS2350) in a three-electrode electrochemical cell with 1 M Na2SO4 as the electrolyte, in which the as-prepared samples were acted as the working electrode, Pt and Ag/AgCl electrode were used as the counter and reference electrodes, respectively. The I–t curve was recorded under Xe lamp (153 mW/cm2) irradiation.
Measurement of Photocatalytic Activity
The photocatalytic activity was evaluated toward the photodegradation of RhB. A 500 W Xe lamp was used as the light source. The samples with same size 2 cm × 3 cm were placed into 20 ml RhB solution (10 mg/L). After irradiation for a designated time (30 min), 3 mL of RhB solution was taken out to identify the concentration of RhB using UV–vis spectrophotometer (TU-1901). All of these measurements were carried out at room temperature.
Results and Discussion
The improved photocatalytic property of TiO2 NSAs/G/Cu2O may be attributed to the following factors. First, the introduction of Cu2O can extend the light absorption range, and thus, the photocatalytic activities are enhanced. Second, the limitation of carrier recombination is a key factor to enhance the photocatalytic property. The graphene as an electron sink can accept the photoelectrons from the photoexcited Cu2O which will reduce the recombination. Besides, TiO2 nanosheet structure can provide more favorable carrier transportation channel. Third, the better photocatalytic property can take advantage of large specific surface area. TiO2 NSAs/G/Cu2O structure fabricated on the carbon cloth can form a 3D structure which can provide a higher specific surface area. The high surface area of the 3D structure allows not only more surfaces to be reached by the incident light but also more sites on the surface for the adsorption and photodegradation of RhB, which results in enhanced photocatalytic performance. Finally, the 3D structure can enhance the photon utilization efficiency. The structure allows a great number of the photons to penetrate deep inside the photocatalyst, and most photons are trapped within the 3D structure until being completely absorbed.
In summary, the novel 3D TiO2 NSAs/G/Cu2O structure is prepared via a simple and efficient method. Importantly, the composite structure exhibits excellent photocatalytic degradation properties. The enhanced performance can be ascribed to its extended light absorption range, large specific surface area, enhanced photon utilization efficiency, improved charge transfer efficiency and suppressed photoelectron-hole recombination. Furthermore, the photocatalysts grown on carbon cloths make the collection and recycle of photocatalysts much easier.
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Provience (Grant Nos. ZR2016FM30, ZR2016JL015), the Science-Technology Program of Higher Education Institutions of Shandong Province (Grant No. J14LA01), the Graduate Innovation Foundation of University of Jinan, GIFUJN, (Grant No. YCXS15006), the Open Project Program of Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, Harbin Normal University (Grant No. PEBM201505), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51672109, 61504048, 21505050).
Y.N.N. and H.J.Z. designed the experiments. Y.N.N. and F.K. performed the experiments. D.X.L. performed the SEM observations. Y.N.N., H.J.Z., D.X.L., and W.M.Z. discussed and commented on the experiments and results and wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Schneider J, Matsuoka M, Takeuchi M, Zhang J, Horiuchi Y, Anpo M, Bahnemann DW (2014) Understanding TiO2 photocatalysis: mechanisms and materials. Chem Rev 114:9919–9986View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Z, Huang Y, Liu K, Guo L, Yuan Q, Dong B (2015) Multichannel-improved charge-carrier dynamics in well-designed hetero-nanostructural plasmonic photocatalysts toward highly efficient solar-to-fuels conversion. Adv Mater 27:5906–5914View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fu K, Huang J, Yao N, Xu X, Wei M (2015) Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated with CdSe using an upconversion TiO2:Yb3+, Er3+ thin film. Ind Eng Chem Res 54:659–665View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tian J, Hao P, Wei N, Cui H, Liu H (2015) 3D Bi2MoO6 nanosheet/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure: enhanced photocatalytic activities and photoelectochemistry performance. ACS Catal 5:4530–4536View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Ji G, Liu Y, Gondal MA, Chang X (2014) Cu2O/TiO2 heterostructure nanotube arrays prepared by an electrodeposition method exhibiting enhanced photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction to methanol. Catal Commun 46:17–21View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yan W, He F, Gai S, Gao P, Chen Y, Yang P (2014) A novel 3D structured reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 composite: synthesis and photocatalytic performance. J Mater Chem A 2:3605–3612View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang J, Fu K, Yao N, Deng X, Ding M, Shao M, Xu X, Wei M (2016) Enhanced photocatalytic performance using one dimensional ordered TiO2 nanorods modified by graphene oxide. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 16:14771482Google Scholar
- Wei X, Shao C, Li X, Lu N, Wang K, Zhang Z, Liu Y (2016) Facile in situ synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles-decorated g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction nanofibers and comparison study of their photosynergistic effects for efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution. Nanoscale 8:11034–11043View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yao N, Huang J, Fu K, Liu S, E D, Wang Y, Xu X, Zhu M, Cao B (2014) Efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells with down conversion material ZnO: Eu3+, Dy3+, J Power Sources 267:405–410Google Scholar
- Fu K, Huang J, Yao N, Deng X, Xu X, Li L (2016) Hybrid nanostructure of TiO2 nanorod arrays/Cu2O with a CH3NH3PbI3 interlayer for enhanced photocatalytic activity and photoelectrochemical performance. RSC Adv 6:57695–57770View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang J, Liu S, Kuang L, Zhao Y, Jiang T, Liu S, Xu X (2013) Enhanced photocatalytic activity of quantum-dot-sensitized one-dimensionally-ordered ZnO nanorod photocatalyst. J Environ Sci 25:2487–2491View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dutta SK, Mehetor SK, Pradhan N (2015) Metal semiconductor heterostructures for photocatalytic conversion of light energy. J Phys Chem Lett 6:936–944View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hara M, Kondo T, Komoda M, Ikeda S, Kondo J, Domen K, Hara M, Shinohara K, Tanaka A (1998) Cu2O as a photocatalyst for overall water splitting under visible light irradiation. Chem Commun 3:357–358View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Paracchino A, Laporte V, Sivula K, Grätzel M, Thimsen E (2011) Highly active oxide photocathode for photoelectrochemical water reduction. Nat Mater 10:456–461View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li C, Li Y, Delaunay J (2013) A novel method to synthesize highly photoactive Cu2O microcrystalline films for use in photoelectrochemical cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:480–486View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tilley S, Schreier M, Azevedo J, Stefik M, Graetzel M (2014) Ruthenium oxide hydrogen evolution catalysis on composite cuprous oxide water-splitting photocathodes. Adv Funct Mater 24:303–311View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li C, Hisatomi T, Watanabe O, Nakabayashi M, Shibata N, Domen K, Delaunay J (2015) Positive onset potential and stability of Cu2O-based photocathodes in water splitting by atomic layer deposition of a Ga2O3 buffer layer. Energy Environ Sci 8:1493–1500View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li C, Hisatomi T, Watanabe O, Nakabayashi M, Shibata N, Domen K, Delaunay J (2016) Simultaneous enhancement of photovoltage and charge transfer in Cu2O-based photocathode using buffer and protective layers. Appl Phys Lett 109:033902View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fan W, Yu X, Lu H, Bai H, Zhang C, Shi W (2016) Fabrication of TiO2/RGO/Cu2O heterostructure for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Appl Catal Environ 181:7–15View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fu K, Huang J, Yao N, Xu X, Wei M (2016) Enhanced photocatalytic activity based on composite structure with down-conversion material and graphene. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:1559–1565View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Yu J, Jaroniec M (2016) Hierarchical photocatalysts. Chem Soc Rev 45:2603–2636View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li J, Wu N (2015) Semiconductor-based photocatalysts and photoelectrochemical cells for solar fuel generation: a review. Catal Sci Technol 5:1360–1384View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Yu J, Wageh S, Al-Ghamdi AA, Xie J (2016) Graphene in photocatalysis: a review. Small 12:6640–6696View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ge M, Li S, Huang J, Zhang K, Al-Deyab SS, Lai Y (2015) TiO2 nanotube arrays loaded with reduced graphene oxide films: facile hybridization and promising photocatalytic application. J Mater Chem A 3:3491–3499View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Q, Li X, Wageh S, Al-Ghamdi AA, Yu J (2015) CdS/graphene nanocomposite photocatalysts. Adv Energy Mater 5:1500010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bhosale RR, Pujari SR, Muley GG, Patil SH, Patil KR, Shaikh MF, Gambhire AB (2014) Solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Sol Energy 103:473–479View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alsawat M, Altalhi T, Gulati K, Santos A, Losic D (2015) Synthesis of carbon nanotube–nanotubular titania composites by catalyst-free CVD Process: insights into the formation mechanism and photocatalytic properties. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:28361–28368View ArticleGoogle Scholar