Skip to main content

Table 4 Addition of trehalose after homogenization

From: Lyophilized Hybrid Nanostructured Lipid Carriers to Enhance the Cellular Uptake of Verapamil: Statistical Optimization and In Vitro Evaluation

Formula code (Lipid:trehalose) ratio Testing condition PS (nm) PDI % EE
VER-9 1:0 Before lyophilization 178.34 ± 4.85 0.534 ± 0.0002 97.98 ± 0.96
After lyophilization 372.78 ± 10.81 0.733 ± 0.048 97.61 ± 0.51
1:1 After lyophilization 212.82 ± 3.83 0.544 ± 0.044 67.47 ± 1.61
1:2 329.45 ± 12.10 0.995 ± 0.007 40.68 ± 7.32
1:4 227.93 ± 3.64 0.634 ± 0.812 22.19 ± 3.25
1:6 317.94 ± 65.10 0.812 ± 0.052 9.47 ± 2.93
1:8 260.67 ± 16.35 0.611 ± 0.033 8.37 ± 2.02
VER-11 1:0 Before lyophilization 166.34 ± 3.84 0.465 ± 0.012 99.09 ± 0.29
After lyophilization 1544.18 ± 2064 1 ± 0.00 98.27 ± 0.34
1:1 After lyophilization 171.59 ± 3.69 0.558 ± 0.033 70.28 ± 0.87
1:2 210.97 ± 48.38 0.610 ± 0.041 44.88 ± 3.55
1:4 264.33 ± 13.52 0.748 ± 0.022 23.81 ± 3.17
1:6 231.9 ± 17.64 0.549 ± 0.025 9.06 ± 2.75
1:8 260.33 ± 16.30 0.506 ± 0.078 7.96 ± 2.56
VER-13 1:0 Before lyophilization 165.5 ± 4.34 0.524 ± 0.174 93.90 ± 0.77
After lyophilization 1129.41 ± 657.64 1 ± 0.00 92.77 ± 1.37
1:1 After lyophilization 261.11 ± 13.35 0.608 ± 0.025 71.53 ± 2.85
1:2 188.66 ± 9.19 0.662 ± 0.044 52.81 ± 2.50
1:4 256.45 ± 22.60 1 ± 0.00 25.19 ± 3.90
1:6 272.61 ± 34.13 0.622 ± 0.025 10.64 ± 0.82
1:8 238.02 ± 12.73 0.824 ± 0.030 8.43 ± 3.08
VER-15 1:0 Before lyophilization 174.52 ± 2.97 0.497 ± 0.012 95.87 ± 0.25
After lyophilization 1175.55 ± 1016.11 1 ± 0.00 94.90 ± 1.26
1:1 After lyophilization 232.77 ± 4.55 0.497 ± 0.069 74.95 ± 3.18
1:2 300.91 ± 21.33 0.737 ± 0.036 46.04 ± 9.01
1:4 270.42 ± 19.17 0.659 ± 0.094 27.28 ± 4.32
1:6 289.23 ± 42.33 0.824 ± 0.030 9.39 ± 2.48
1:8 208.55 ± 10.87 0.738 ± 0.022 7.78 ± 3.00
  1. PS particle size, PDI polydispersity index, EE entrapment efficiency