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Table 2 summarize the preparation, physical properties, performance, and activity of Pt-based supported various carbon materials

From: Platinum-Based Catalysts on Various Carbon Supports and Conducting Polymers for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications: a Review

Catalyst Preparation of support Ave. particle size (nm) Electrochemical condition Catalytic properties Advantages/limitations Ref.
Pt/graphene nitrogen doped carbon layer (Pt/NCL-RGO) Hummer’s method 3–6 0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 100 mV/s [MOR]: a better catalytic activity and stability.
Peak current density
of Pt/NCL-RGO is almost twice of Pt/RGO.
[Adv.]: NCL from aniline source prevented the aggregation of Pt on graphene nanosheet, larger ESA of Pt/NCL-RGO.
[Limitations]: introduction of aniline contributed little effect on the crystallization of Pt particles.
[146]
PtRu/graphene Hammer’s method Less than 10 0.5 M H2SO4 + 1.0 M CH3OH, scan rate 50 mV/s [MOR]: Current density of MOR for Pt/G 19.1 mA/cm2and Pt/CB is 9.76 mA/cm2, with the ratios are 6.52 for Pt/G and 1.39 for (Pt/CB), respectively. [Adv]: graphene supported Pt behave a more stable fashion than those Pt on carbon black.
Addition of Ru inhibit the accumulation of CO and other carbonaceous species formed on the graphene
[Limitation]: the synthesis method need to be modified the get more uniform PtRu particles.
[193]
Pt/C/graphene aerogel Green hydrothermal 2 0.5 M H2SO4 + 1.0 M CH3OH, scan rate 50 mV/s [MOR]: gives higher stability during MOR.
Current density observed is 405.3 mA mg−1 Pt, which is very close to that commercial of Pt/C (424.6 mA mg−1 Pt).
Pt/C/GA more stable than Pt/C for methanol oxidation.
[Adv]: 3D macroporous structure of graphene support gives higher stability during MOR much affected by the hydrothermal process.
3D microporous graphene provide accessibility for reactant to the Pt NPs to ensure an effective mass transfer.
[144]
Pt/MWCNT Reduction by using Ethylene glycol (EG) 3.4 1.0 M CH3OH, at 90 °C operating
temperature, flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; oxygen pressure: 0.2 MPa
[ORR]: Catalytic activity of Pt/MWCNT is higher than that Pt/XC-7.
Current density for Pt/MWCNT was 14.7 mA/mg Pt and 2.5 mA/mg Pt for Pt/XC-72.
[Adv]: increased of ORR activity of Pt/MWCNTs attributed to the unique structure, good electrical and electrical conductivity of MWCNT supports.
Homogeneous dispersion of the Pt particles on support when the EG solvent is used, in contrast to aqueous HCHO reduction
[Limitation]: particle size of Pt in Pt/MWCNT larger than those in Pt/XC-72 using this method.
[194]
PtFe/MWCNT Reduction 1.5–2.1 0.5 M H2SO4 + 1.0 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, under N2 flow, scan rate 100 mV/s [MOR]: S3 sample (PtFe/MWCNT) showed highest current density (86 mA/cm2)
Improvement in CO tolerance
[Adv]: enhanced in electroactivity of S3 sample was due to the presence of Fe atoms on the surface of the Pt nanoparticles, that promotes a shift in the oxidation potential
[Limitation]: ununiform particles size observed on carbon support.
[195]
PtRuNi/MWCNT Purchased 2–4 0.5 M H2SO4 + 2.0 M CH3OH, scan rate 100 mV/s [MOR]: current density achieved was 4000 mA/mgPt.
Highest tolerance to CO and more complete oxidation of methanol to CO2 in the forward scan.
[Adv]: addition of Ni in the PtRu can be explained by the hydrogen spillover effect of Ni hydroxides and electron effect of metallic.
[Limitation]: difficulty in achieving uniform alloy formation and controlling the metal alloy composition on support.
[126]
PtRu/SWCNT Chemical vapor deposition 2–3.5 0.5 M H2SO4 + 1.0 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 50 mV/s [MOR]: bimetallic catalyst supported on the different SWCNT buckypapers have excellent catalytic activity MOR. [Adv]: higher in MOR was influenced by the solvent/dispersant and the presence of surface oxygen functional groups
[Limitation]: the large agglomeration of particles also determined in range 12–15 nm.
[127]
PtRu/CECNF Electrospinning 3.0 0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 20 mV/s [MOR]: PtRu supported CECNF exhibited 2.5 times higher in power density with one half the PtRu loading compared to that of the PtRu/C [Adv]: higher in MOR attributed to the strong interaction of PtRu alloy and CECNF support.
High oxygen storage capacity of CeO2
[Limitation]: CeO2 has characteristic of low electrical conductivity as support causes a high resistance which is a disadvantage for fuel cell application.
[196]
PtCo/CNF Electrospinning ND 0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 20 mV/s [MOR]: high catalytic activity MOR.
More stable catalyst for the Pt/Co-coal-CF compared to that Pt /CNF, coal-based carbon nanofiber (coal-CF) and Co embedded carbon nanofiber (Co-CF).
Mass activity of PtCo-coal-CF 78.5 A/g Pt.
[Adv]: high graphitization of Co-coal-CF was obtained.
Electrospinning have drawn the most advantages of simple method, low price, high yield and easy morphology control of particles.
Pt nanoparticles are well distributed on the coal-CF, Co-CF, and Co-coal-CF materials.
[Limitation]: agglomeration of nanoparticle clusters are still observed, that may because of weak interaction between Pt nanoparticles and CF support.
[131]
PtCo/wormlike mesoporous carbon Reduction 3–4 0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 50 mV/s [MOR]: 26–97% increase in catalytic activity than that of commercial catalyst.
BET surface area obtained of GMC is 585 m2 g−1.
[Adv]: high in degree of graphitization with 2-D hexagonal mesoporous structure exhibited high capacitance and conductivity of this support.
Reduce the usage of Pt.
Low temperature used
[Limitation]: the specific surface area of mesoporous carbon not much larger and need to be improved.
[197]