|Catalyst||Preparation of support||Ave. particle size (nm)||Electrochemical condition||Catalytic properties||Advantages/limitations||Ref.|
|Pt/graphene nitrogen doped carbon layer (Pt/NCL-RGO)||Hummer’s method||3–6||0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 100 mV/s||
[MOR]: a better catalytic activity and stability.|
Peak current density
of Pt/NCL-RGO is almost twice of Pt/RGO.
[Adv.]: NCL from aniline source prevented the aggregation of Pt on graphene nanosheet, larger ESA of Pt/NCL-RGO.|
[Limitations]: introduction of aniline contributed little effect on the crystallization of Pt particles.
|PtRu/graphene||Hammer’s method||Less than 10||0.5 M H2SO4 + 1.0 M CH3OH, scan rate 50 mV/s||[MOR]: Current density of MOR for Pt/G 19.1 mA/cm2and Pt/CB is 9.76 mA/cm2, with the ratios are 6.52 for Pt/G and 1.39 for (Pt/CB), respectively.||
[Adv]: graphene supported Pt behave a more stable fashion than those Pt on carbon black.|
Addition of Ru inhibit the accumulation of CO and other carbonaceous species formed on the graphene
[Limitation]: the synthesis method need to be modified the get more uniform PtRu particles.
|Pt/C/graphene aerogel||Green hydrothermal||2||0.5 M H2SO4 + 1.0 M CH3OH, scan rate 50 mV/s||
[MOR]: gives higher stability during MOR.|
Current density observed is 405.3 mA mg−1 Pt, which is very close to that commercial of Pt/C (424.6 mA mg−1 Pt).
Pt/C/GA more stable than Pt/C for methanol oxidation.
[Adv]: 3D macroporous structure of graphene support gives higher stability during MOR much affected by the hydrothermal process.|
3D microporous graphene provide accessibility for reactant to the Pt NPs to ensure an effective mass transfer.
|Pt/MWCNT||Reduction by using Ethylene glycol (EG)||3.4||
1.0 M CH3OH, at 90 °C operating|
temperature, flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; oxygen pressure: 0.2 MPa
[ORR]: Catalytic activity of Pt/MWCNT is higher than that Pt/XC-7.|
Current density for Pt/MWCNT was 14.7 mA/mg Pt and 2.5 mA/mg Pt for Pt/XC-72.
[Adv]: increased of ORR activity of Pt/MWCNTs attributed to the unique structure, good electrical and electrical conductivity of MWCNT supports.|
Homogeneous dispersion of the Pt particles on support when the EG solvent is used, in contrast to aqueous HCHO reduction
[Limitation]: particle size of Pt in Pt/MWCNT larger than those in Pt/XC-72 using this method.
|PtFe/MWCNT||Reduction||1.5–2.1||0.5 M H2SO4 + 1.0 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, under N2 flow, scan rate 100 mV/s||
[MOR]: S3 sample (PtFe/MWCNT) showed highest current density (86 mA/cm2)|
Improvement in CO tolerance
[Adv]: enhanced in electroactivity of S3 sample was due to the presence of Fe atoms on the surface of the Pt nanoparticles, that promotes a shift in the oxidation potential|
[Limitation]: ununiform particles size observed on carbon support.
|PtRuNi/MWCNT||Purchased||2–4||0.5 M H2SO4 + 2.0 M CH3OH, scan rate 100 mV/s||
[MOR]: current density achieved was 4000 mA/mgPt.|
Highest tolerance to CO and more complete oxidation of methanol to CO2 in the forward scan.
[Adv]: addition of Ni in the PtRu can be explained by the hydrogen spillover effect of Ni hydroxides and electron effect of metallic.|
[Limitation]: difficulty in achieving uniform alloy formation and controlling the metal alloy composition on support.
|PtRu/SWCNT||Chemical vapor deposition||2–3.5||0.5 M H2SO4 + 1.0 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 50 mV/s||[MOR]: bimetallic catalyst supported on the different SWCNT buckypapers have excellent catalytic activity MOR.||
[Adv]: higher in MOR was influenced by the solvent/dispersant and the presence of surface oxygen functional groups|
[Limitation]: the large agglomeration of particles also determined in range 12–15 nm.
|PtRu/CECNF||Electrospinning||3.0||0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 20 mV/s||[MOR]: PtRu supported CECNF exhibited 2.5 times higher in power density with one half the PtRu loading compared to that of the PtRu/C||
[Adv]: higher in MOR attributed to the strong interaction of PtRu alloy and CECNF support.|
High oxygen storage capacity of CeO2
[Limitation]: CeO2 has characteristic of low electrical conductivity as support causes a high resistance which is a disadvantage for fuel cell application.
|PtCo/CNF||Electrospinning||ND||0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 20 mV/s||
[MOR]: high catalytic activity MOR.|
More stable catalyst for the Pt/Co-coal-CF compared to that Pt /CNF, coal-based carbon nanofiber (coal-CF) and Co embedded carbon nanofiber (Co-CF).
Mass activity of PtCo-coal-CF 78.5 A/g Pt.
[Adv]: high graphitization of Co-coal-CF was obtained.|
Electrospinning have drawn the most advantages of simple method, low price, high yield and easy morphology control of particles.
Pt nanoparticles are well distributed on the coal-CF, Co-CF, and Co-coal-CF materials.
[Limitation]: agglomeration of nanoparticle clusters are still observed, that may because of weak interaction between Pt nanoparticles and CF support.
|PtCo/wormlike mesoporous carbon||Reduction||3–4||0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M CH3OH, at 25 °C, scan rate 50 mV/s||
[MOR]: 26–97% increase in catalytic activity than that of commercial catalyst.|
BET surface area obtained of GMC is 585 m2 g−1.
[Adv]: high in degree of graphitization with 2-D hexagonal mesoporous structure exhibited high capacitance and conductivity of this support.|
Reduce the usage of Pt.
Low temperature used
[Limitation]: the specific surface area of mesoporous carbon not much larger and need to be improved.