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Table 2 Water uptake and swelling ratio

From: Influence of Graphene Oxide on the Ethanol Permeability and Ionic Conductivity of QPVA-Based Membrane in Passive Alkaline Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells

Membranes KOH uptakes (%) Swelling ratio (%) Oxidative stability (Retained weight, %)
In-plane Through-plane
PVA 105 20 62.41 96
QPVA 136 18 60.75 97
QPVA/GO 5 wt.% 114 15.2 53.13 95
QPVA/GO 10 wt.% 98 12.3 42.54 94
QPVA/GO 15 wt.% 84 8.65 35.48 93
QPVA/GO 20 wt.% 45 7.54 28.5 91