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Table 2 Some of the metal nanoparticles and metal nanoparticle conjugates that have been demonstrated as having antiviral properties

From: Magnetic Functionalized Nanoparticles for Biomedical, Drug Delivery and Imaging Applications

Type of nanoparticle Size (nm) Antiviral application Mechanism of action Ref
AgNPs 10–50 Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Interaction with DNA and/or binding with virus particles [113]
Ag-PS-NPs 10–80 Monkeypox virus (MPV) Blocking of virus-host cell binding and penetration [114]
PVP-AgNPs 30–50 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Prevention of HIV-1 transfection [115, 116]
Au-MES 4 Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) Competition with host cell binding [117]
Gold coated with an amphiphilic sulfate ligand 2 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Binding to gp120 [118]
Copper iodide (CuI) nanoparticles 100–400 Feline calicivirus (FCV) ROS generation and subsequent capsid protein oxidation [119]
Copper iodide (CuI) nanoparticles 160 Influenza A of swine origin (H1N1) Generation of hydroxyl radicals and degradation of viral proteins [120]