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Table 1 Hydrodynamic diameters and polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta (z)-potential of the 40 and 80 nm bare and PC AuNP with cationic BPEI, anionic LA, and neutral PEG in a microsomal incubation buffer (100 mM phosphate buffer) at 0 min and 45 min at 37 °C. Data is mean ± S.D. (n = 5)

From: Impact of Gold Nanoparticles on Testosterone Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes

AuNP size (nm) Surface coatings Hydrodynamic diameters (nm) PDI z-potential
0 min 45 min 0 min 45 min 0 min 45 min
40 BPEI 498.5 ± 25.4 807.6 ± 51.8*** 0.38 ± 0.05 0.40 ± 0.04 − 8.2 ± 2.6 −18.0 ± 1.1**
LA 584.5 ± 12.7 816.4 ± 0.5** 0.36 ± 0.04 0.38 ± 0.02 −22.6 ± 1.8 −21.6 ± 0.9
PEG 685.4 ± 13.5 715.2 ± 41.9 0.32 ± 0.02 0.43 ± 0.02** − 7.6 ± 0.5 − 9.1 ± 0.6**
PC LA 165.5 ± 0.1 168.1 ± 0.1 0.48 ± 0.07 0.50 ± 0.13 −11.5 ± 1.1 − 11.8 ± 1.7
PC PEG 73.5 ± 0.02 77.3 ± 1.3** 0.09 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.01*** −9.5 ± 1.5 − 11.8 ± 1.1
80 BPEI 764.4 ± 14.6 925.9 ± 58.2** 0.40 ± 0.06 0.42 ± 0.04 −6.3 ± 0.6 −12.7 ± 0.8***
LA 835.0 ± 46.5 859.1 ± 63.1 0.45 ± 0.02 0.51 ± 0.06 −29.9 ± 1.8 − 29.5 ± 1.3
PEG 113.0 ± 0.60 111.4 ± 0.6 0.09 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.01 −11.0 ± 1.3 −12.3 ± 1.2
PC LA 133.2 ± 0.01 128.1 ± 0.02** 0.10 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.02 −12.0 ± 1.1 −12.3 ± 0.8
PC PEG 126.5 ± 0.01 128.4 ± 1.6 0.08 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01** −8.7 ± 4.4 −11.2 ± 1.9
  1. BPEI branched polyethylenimine, LA lipoic acid, PEG polyethylene glycol, PC human plasma protein corona
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.005; ***p < 0.0001