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Fig. 6 | Nanoscale Research Letters

Fig. 6

From: Towards Digital Manufacturing of Smart Multimaterial Fibers

Fig. 6

Biological interfacing. (I) Three-dimensional bioprinting of a tissue. (II) Standard microextrusion of bioink. (III) Conventional bioink with cells suspended in hydrogel. (IV) Novel coaxial microextrusion of biointerfacing fiber coated in bioink. (V) Close-up view of fiber where biointerfacing occurs: epithelial cells and vascular epithelial growth factors are excreted from different microchannels and result in cellular self-assembled vasculature between two orifices; piezoelectric elements measure surrounding cell density by ultrasound; and shape memory alloy wires provide peristaltic motion in the tissue. (VI) Visualization of biointerfacing fiber and its components

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