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Fig. 1 | Nanoscale Research Letters

Fig. 1

From: Raman Techniques: Fundamentals and Frontiers

Fig. 1

a Energy transfer process in Stokes (left) and anti-Stokes (right) Raman scattering, in both scattering processes, the lifetime of the excited state is probabilistic and spontaneous. In Stokes Raman scattering, the initial (ro-)vibrational energy |i〉 of the scattering material is less than that of the final state |f〉, the scattered light has less energy than the pump light. In anti-Stokes scattering, the initial (ro-)vibrational energy |i〉 of the scattering medium is greater than that of the final state |f〉, the scattered light has more energy than the pump light. b Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). CARS is a four-wave mixing process of pump, Stokes, probe and anti-Stokes light in which the emission of anti-Stokes light is coherently induced through an intermediate (ro-)vibrational energy state population inversion. c Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The incident pump light induces a surface plasmon resonance. The resultant enhancement of the oscillatory electro-magnetic (EM) field strength (shown in blue) on the surface intensifies the light-matter interaction and consequently increases the intensity of the Raman scattered light. d Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS). The incident pump light induces a tip-surface plasmon resonance associated with the plasmonically active tip. The resultant enhancement of the oscillatory EM field strength (shown in blue) is localised to the vicinity of the tip apex. The lighting rod effect (illustrated by curved black arrows) intensifies the light-matter interaction in the tip region and provides high-resolution (beyond the diffraction limit of light) Raman imaging. a, b adapted from [1]. c adapted from [111]. d adapted from [112]

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