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Table 1 Studies of g-C3N4 heterojunctions for various pollutants degradations

From: Photocatalytic Applications of Heterostructure Graphitic Carbon Nitride: Pollutant Degradation, Hydrogen Gas Production (water splitting), and CO2 Reduction

Photocatalyst Light source Application Performance Ref.
g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 300-W Xenon lamp (λ > 420-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation k = 6.484 × 10−2 min−1 [74]
g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 50-W 410-nm LED light Methylene blue (MB) degradation k = 6.88 × 10−2 min−1 [75]
g-C3N4/RGO/Bi2MoO6 500-W Xenon lamp (λ > 420-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation k = 5.5 × 10−2 min−1 [45]
Bi2MoO6/CNTs/g-C3N4 500-W Xenon lamp (λ > 420-nm cut-off filter) 2,4-Dibromophenol debromination and degradation k = 7.8 × 10−3 min−1 [46]
g-C3N4/BiOCl 300-W Xenon arc lamp (λ ≥ 400-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation k = 1.99 × 10−1 min−1 [76]
g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 400-W Metal halide lamp (λ ≥ 420-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation k = 4.6 × 10−2 min−1 [26]
Bi2O3/g-C3N4 300-W Xenon lamp (λ > 400-nm cut-off filter) Phenol degradation k = 2.47 × 10−3 min−1 [77]
Bi2O3/g-C3N4 500-W Xenon lamp
(λ > 400-nm cut-off filter)
RhB degradation
Methylene blue degradation
k = 2.53 × 10−2 min−1
k = 1.01 × 10−2 min−1
[78]
BiVO4/g-C3N4 PLS-SXE300 Xenon lamp RhB degradation k = 9.307 × 10−2 min−1 [79]
Bi2O3/g-C3N4 35-W Xenon lamp Amido black 10B degradation k = 1.722 × 10−2 min−1 [80]
Bi2O3/g-C3N4 300-W Xenon lamp (λ > 420nm cut-off filter) Methylene blue degradation k = 6.3 × 10 min−1 [81]
WO3/g-C3N4 500-W Xenon lamp
(λ > 400nm cut-off filter)
Methylene blue degradation
Fuchsin (BF) degradation
k = 3.53 × 10−2 min−1
k = 2.38 × 10−2 min−1
[82]
500-W Xenon lamp 500-W Xenon lamp RhB degradation k = 1.08 × 10−2 min−1 [83]
WO3/g-C3N4 300-W Xenon lamp (λ > 400-nm cut-off) Methylene blue degradation k = 1.3933h−1 [84]
g-C3N4/MoO3 300-W Xenon lamp (λ > 400nm) Methylene blue degradation k = 8.837 × 10−1h−1 [85]
β-Bi2O3/g-C3N4 150-W Xenon lamp (420-nm cut-off filter) Methylene blue degradation k = 1.727 × 10−2 min−1 [86]
g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 300-W Xenon lamp (350–780-nm cut-off filter) 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination (2,4-DCP) k = 1.13 h−1 [87]
Ag3PO4/g-C3N4 300-W Xenon arc lamp (420-nm cut-off filter) k = 1.158 × 10−1 min−1 k = 1.158 × 10−1 min−1 [88]
MoO3/g-C3N4 350-W Xenon lamp (420-nm cut-off filter) Tetracycline degradation k = 2.31 × 10−2 min−1 [47]
BiVO4/g-C3N4 500-W Xenon lamp (λ > 420-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation k = 3.42 × 10−1 h−1 [89]
WO3/g-C3N4 300-W Xenon lamp (420-nm cut-off filter) Ceftiofur sodium (CFS) degradation
Tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl) degradation
k = 1.64 × 10 2 min−1
k = 1.2 × 10−2 min−1
[90]
g-C3N4/TiO2 15 W, 365-nm UV lamp Formaldehyde (HCHO) degradation k = 7.36 × 10−2 min−1 [91]
Bi2O3/g-C3N4 300-W Xenon lamp(λ > 420nm) RhB degradation k = 7.46 × 10−2 min−1 [92]
g-C3N4/TiO2 3-W 365-nm UV lamp Brilliant red X3B degradation k = 5.1 × 10−2 min−1 [93]
Bi2O3/g-C3N4 500-W Xenon arc lamp (400-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation k = 1.01 × 10−2 min−1 [78]
g-C3N4/Ag2CO3 300-W Xenon arc lamp (400-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation k = 1.36 × 10−1 min−1 [94]
g-C3N4/Bi5O7I 300-W Xenon lamp (λ > 420-nm cut-off filter) RhB deghradation
Methyl orange (MO) degration
k = 1.97 × 10−1 min−1
k = 8.4 × 10−2 min−1
[95]
g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 300-W Xenon lamp Ibuprofen degradation k = 5.2 × 102 min−1 [60]
V2O5/g-C3N4 250-W Xenon lamp (420-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation k = 4.91 × 10−2 min−1 [96]
Al2O3/g-C3N4 350W Xenon lamp (400-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation k = 2.57 × 10−2 min−−1 [97]
MoS2/g-C3N4 300-W Xenon lamp (λ > 420-nm cut-off filter) RhB degradation
Methyl orange degradation
k = 1.52 × 101 min−1
k = 1.61 × 10−2 min−1
[98]
CuO/g-C3N4 300-W Xenon lamp (λ > 420-nm cut-off filter) Salicylic acid degradation 94% degradation [99]
g-C3N4-Cu2O LED lamp Methyl orange degradation 84% degradation [100]
g-C3N4/BiOI Visible light RhB degradation k = 3.99 × 10−2 min−1 [101]
g-C3N4/TiO2 30-W visible light lamp Orange II degradation k = 3.11 × 10−2 min−1 [102]
Bi2MoO6/g-C3N4 300-W Xenon lamp (λ > 420-nm cut-off filter) Bacterial disinfection(E.Coli DH5α) k = 1.269h−1 [103]
g-C3N4/CeO2 50-W compact fluorescent lamp (λ > 400-nm cut-off filter) Methylene blue degradation k = 2.46 × 10−1h−1 [104]