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Table 1 Comparison of emerging memory technologies

From: Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM): an Overview of Materials, Switching Mechanism, Performance, Multilevel Cell (mlc) Storage, Modeling, and Applications

Memory technologySRAMDRAMNAND FlashNOR FlashPCMSTT-MRAMRRAM
Cell area> 100F26F2<4F2(3D)10F24– 20F26– 20F2<4F2(3D)
Cell element6T1T1C1T1T1T(D)1R1(2)T1R1T(D)1R
Voltage<1 V<1 V<10 V<10 V<3 V<2 V< 3 V
Read time1 ns10 ns10 μs50 ns<10 ns<10 ns< 10 ns
Write time1 ns10 ns100 μs–1 ms10 μs–1 ms50 ns<5 ns< 10 ns
Write energy (J/bit)fJ10 fJ10 fJ100 pJ10 pJ0.1 pJ0.1 pJ
RetentionN/A64 ms>10 y>10 y>10 y>10 y> 10 y
Endurance> 1016>1016>104>105>109>1015106– 1012
Multibit capacityNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
Non-volatilityNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
ScalabilityYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
F: Feature size of lithography