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Table 2 Comparison of various RRAM types

From: Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM): an Overview of Materials, Switching Mechanism, Performance, Multilevel Cell (mlc) Storage, Modeling, and Applications

Ref Year Top electrode Oxide material Bottom electrode Operation mode HRS /LRS ratio Retention Endurance V f V set V reset I cc
[55] 2007 Ti ZrO2 Pt Bipolar NS NS >104 cycles 8.8 V 1 V – 1.5 V 5mA
[46] 2008 Pt ZnO Pt Unipolar <105 NS >102 cycles 3.3 V – 2 V – 1 V NS
[81] 2008 TiN TiO x/HfO x TiN Bipolar >103 105s >106 cycles FF 1.5 V – 1.4 V 25 μA
[52] 2008 Pt/Ti Al2O3 Pt Bipolar NS NS NS NS 7 V – 2 V 5mA
[39] 2008 Pt NiO Pt/Ti Unipolar NS NS NS 5 V 1 V 3.5 V 1 mA
[30] 2009 Cu TiO2 Pt Bipolar 30 NS NS NS 0.8 V – 1.5 V 300 μA
[58] 2009 Ti ZrO2 Pt Bipolar NS NS >102 cycles NS 1 V – 1.5 V NS
      Unipolar        
[56] 2009 TiN ZrO2 Pt Bipolar NS NS >102 cycles NS 1 V – 1.5 V NS
[49] 2009 Ti MnO2 Pt Bipolar 102 >104s >105 cycles NS 0.7 V – 1.1 V 5mA
[51] 2010 Al/Ti Al2O3 Pt Bipolar >10 104s >103 cycles FF 1.5 V – 2 V 1mA
      Unipolar        
[42] 2010 Pt ZnO Pt Unipolar 102 NS NS 3.5 V 1.1-2.3 V 0.4-1 V 5mA
[57] 2010 Au ZrO2 Ag Bipolar 104 104s > 500 cycles FF – 0.5 V 0.6 V 1mA
[43] 2011 Au ZnO ITO Bipolar 104 >104s 102 cycles NS -1.5 V 0.5V NS
[82] 2011 TaN Al2O3/ Pt Bipolar >105 105s NS NS 1 V – 1 V 10mA
    Ru NCs          
[83] 2011 TiN HfO x/AlO x Pt Bipolar NS NS 106 cycles 8 V 2.5 V – 3 V 300 μA
[44] 2012 Pt ZnO Pt Bipolar 106 >106s >106 cycles 4 V 1.2 V – 0.5V 3mA
[84] 2013 Ta TaO x/TiO2 Ti Bipolar 105 >104s >1012 cycles FF 5 V – 4 to -6V NS
[23] 2014 TiN HfO2 Pt Bipolar 106 104s NS FF – 4.3 V 6 V NS
[22] 2015 W/Zr HfO2 TiN Bipolar NS NS > 106 write cycles 2 V 0.5 V – 1.25 V 50 μA
         > 109 read cycles     
[32] 2015 Pt TaO x TiN Bipolar NS NS NS – 2 V < 1 V <– 1 V 50-200 μA
[36] 2015 W Ta/TaO x Pt Bipolar > 102 > 104s > 108 cycles FF 0.5 V – 1 V 30-300 μA
[85] 2015 Ti HfO2 TiN Bipolar 105 104s 1010 cycles NS 3 V – 3.5 V 1mA
[86] 2015 Ti Ta2O5/ Au Bipolar 2370 NS < 40 cycles FF 0.7 V – 0.7 V NS
    TiO2 NPs          
[24] 2016 ITO TiO x/ FTO Bipolar 103 NS > 300 cycles FF <– 1 V <0.5 V 20 μA
    Ag NPs          
[26] 2016 Ti/W TiO x/MgO Ru Bipolar < 32 NS >103 write cycles FF 1.4 V – 1.8 V 8mA
         >109 read cycles     
[28] 2016 TiN/Ti TiO 2−x Au Bipolar 105 NS 105 cycles FF 1 V – 1 V 2-200 μA
[41] 2016 Ag a-ZnO Pt Bipolar >107 >106s >102 cycles FF 0.24 V – 2 V 0.1-0.5 mA
[87] 2016 W WO3/Al2O3 TiW/Cu Bipolar 104 NS 300 cycles 3 V 3.5 V – 2.5 V 10 μA
[27] 2017 TiN/Ti TiO 2−x Au Bipolar <103 >105s > 50 cycles FF <– 0.5 V <1 V 1-200nA
[88] 2017 Al HfO x Al Unipolar 104 NS NS 1V 1.8 V 0.8 V 1 μA-1mA
[89] 2017 Au/Ti TiO 2−x Au Bipolar >104 NS NS FF 1 V – 1 V 5 μA-1mA
[18] 2018 Ti HfO2 TiN Bipolar >10 104s > 10 7 cycles FF 0.5 V – 0.5 V NS
[31] 2018 ITO a-TiO2 Pt Bipolar >10 <103s NS 4.15 V 0.6 V – 0.5 V < 200 μA
[47] 2018 ITO Zn2TiO4 Pt Bipolar NS > 104s > 500 cycles 25 V 0.6 V – 0.6 V 1-10 mA
[72] 2018 Ag MnO/Ta2O5 Pt Bipolar 106 104s 100 cycles FF 0.8 V – 1.1 V 1 mA
[90] 2018 Pd HfO x/ TiN Bipolar 103 >104s >108 cycles 5.25 V 2.2 V – 2.2 V 100 μA
    Ag NPs