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Table 1 Selected recent biosensor studies based on nanomaterials including ZnO nanostructures

From: An Overview on Recent Progress of Metal Oxide/Graphene/CNTs-Based Nanobiosensors

Nanomaterials and morphology Types of biosensors LOD Sensitivity Linear detection range Analyte detected Applications References
ZnO nanoflower Optical fluorescence 2.76 µg 1.388 mg/ml - Amyloids Neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer, diabetes) Akhtar et al. [57]
CuO-modified ZnO nanorods (NRs) Electrochemical
0.40 μM 2961.7μA mM−1 cm−2 0.001–8.45 mM Glucose Diabetes Ahmad et al. [62]
ZnO NRs Electrochemical-Potentiometric NR 164.4 mV/decades 1 µM–10 mM Glucose Diabetes Wahab et al. [63]
ZnO NRs FET 1 µM 1.6 mA/(µM-cm2) - Glucose Diabetes Zong et al. [54]
Cu-doped ZnO NPs Electrochemical
10−9 M 0.06 µF 10−9 M-10−5 M Glucose Diabetes Mahmoud et al. [64]
ZnO/CuO/Co3O4 NPs Electrochemical 9.7 ± 0.5 pM 36.98 μA μM−1 cm−2 0.05 nM–0.05 mM Melamine Food safety Alam et al. [65]
ZnO Nanotube Optical-Fluorescence 70 μM 3.5%·mM−1 0.1–15 mM Glucose Diabetes Mai et al. [66]
ZnO nanosheets FET 210 nM 0.27 mA/M/cm2 10 nM–1 mM Formaldehyde Life protection Kim et al. [67]
CNT-embedded ZnO nanofiber Electrochemical 5.368 zM 21.61 (KΩ μg−1 mL−1) cm−2 10 zM–1 µM Atrazine Environmental protection Supraja et al. [68]
ZnO NWs/Graphene nanoplates Electrochemical 0.003 mg/dL 0.003–30,000 mg/dL Glucose Diabetes Rafiee et al. [61]
Flower-like ZnO nanosheets/Graphene Electrochemical 0.0093 μM, 0.02–216 μM Epinephrine Clinical applications Zhu et al. [69]
ZnO NRs/Carbon fibers Electrochemical 0.45 fg/mL 6.09 μA/(g/mL) 1 fg/mL–1 μg/mL Cortisol Medical textile industry Madhu et al. [70]
RuO2 doped ZnO NPs Electrochemical
96.0 ± 5.0 pM 5.42 μA μM−1 cm−2 0.1 nM–0.01 mM l-glutamic acid Food safety Alam et al. [71]
ZnO quantum dots/BiOI nanoflower Photoelectrochemical 3.3 pM 0.01- 500 nM Histone acetyltransferase Clinical applications Chen et al. [72]