Illustration of the cancer cell membrane–biomimetic NPs for targeting recognition of source cancer cell, dual-modal imaging, and photothermal therapy. (A) Preparation procedure of ICNPs. Extracting cancer MCF-7 cell membrane hybridized with PEGylated phospholipids (DSPE-PEG) and then coated onto ICG-loaded polymeric cores by extrusion. (B) Schematic of homologous targeting ICNPs for dual-modal imaging guided photothermal therapy. Through specific homologous targeting and the EPR effect (passive targeting), ICNPs realized perfect tumor accumulation, dual-modal FL/PA imaging, and effective photothermal therapy after intravenous injection.