Skip to main content

Preparation and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt-Doped FeMn2O4 Spinel Nanoparticles

Abstract

Mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted great scientific interest since they find applications in many fields. However, the synthesis of size-controlled and composition-tuned mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles is a great challenge that complicates their study for practical application. In this study, Co-doped FeMn2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by the solvothermal method in which the crystallization was carried out under autogenous pressure at temperatures of 190 °C for 24 h. The influence of Co doping on the evolution of the structural and magnetic properties was investigated by various methods. It was found from XRD data that crystallite size decreases from 9.1 to 4.4 nm with the increase in Co content, which is in good agreement with the results of TEM. Based on the results of magnetic measurements, it was found that the saturation magnetization first increases with an increase in the cobalt content and reaches its maximum value at x = 0.4, and a further increase in x leads to a decrease in the saturation magnetization. The influence of cation redistribution on the observed changes has been discussed.

Introduction

Due to the unique magnetic, electrical, and other properties, spinel oxides have attracted great scientific interest and find practical applications in various fields, such as spintronic devices, data storage, supercapacitors, biomedicine, light absorption, environmental remediation, and so on [1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. One of the reasons for the wide variety of physicochemical properties of spinel oxides is their structure with the general chemical formula AB2O4 (where A and B are metal ions). Depending on the distribution of ions between the tetrahedral A and octahedral B sites, spinels are divided into three types: normal, inverse, and mixed spinels [8, 9], and the structural formula for a binary spinel may be written in the more accurate format: \(\left( {A_{1 - i}^{p + } B_{i}^{q + } } \right)\left[ {A_{i}^{p + } B_{2 - i}^{q + } } \right]O_{4}^{2 - }\), where the tetrahedral and octahedral sublattices are denoted as () and [], respectively; p and q—valencies; ‘i’—the inversion parameter, which is 0 for normal, 1 for inverse, and 0 < i < 1 for mixed spinels. In addition, the substitution of cations in spinel oxides also significantly affects their physical properties and increases opportunities for their practical application [10,11,12,13].

The MnxFe3−xO4 system has attracted the attention of researchers for a long time [14,15,16] due to its physical properties depend on the composition, which increases the possible applications of this system [17,18,19,20,21,22]. At the manganese content x < 1.9, it crystallizes in a cubic structure, while at x > 1.9 it crystallizes in a tetragonal structure (for bulk and single crystals samples) [23], which originates from the orientation of the tetragonally distorted Mn3+O6 octahedra due to the Jahn–Teller effect [23,24,25]. Despite the wide variety of compositions of the MnxFe3−xO4 system, most studies have focused on the iron-rich region (with x ≤ 1), while the number of reports on the manganese-rich region is limited [26,27,28]. It has been shown that in the Mn-rich region the system forms in an inverse or a mixed spinel structure [29] and cation distribution can be expressed by two formulae: \(\left( {{\text{Mn}}^{2 + } } \right)\left[ {{\text{Fe}}_{3 - x}^{3 + } {\text{Mn}}_{x - 1}^{3 + } } \right]{\text{O}}_{4}^{2 - }\) or \(\left( {{\text{Mn}}_{1 - y}^{2 + } {\text{Fe}}_{y}^{3 + } } \right)\left[ {{\text{Fe}}_{z}^{3 + } {\text{Mn}}_{2 - x}^{3 + } {\text{Mn}}_{y}^{2 + } } \right]{\text{O}}_{4}^{2 - }\) (where x = y + z). In the present work, we report, for the first time, as far as we know, about the study of FeMn2O4 nanoparticles doped with cobalt, which were synthesized by the solvothermal method. The influence of the Co content on the structural and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles was investigated by various methods.

Methods

Synthesis of Co-Doped FeMn2O4 Nanoparticles

Samples of Fe(Mn1−xCox)2O4 spinel nanoparticles were synthesized by the solvothermal method (Scheme 1). All the reagents were of analytical grade and were used without any further purification. The required quantities of Fe(acac)3, Mn(acac)2 and Co(acac)2 (see Table 1) were dissolved in benzyl alcohol. The resulting solutions were stirred thoroughly and then transferred into a 50 mL Teflon-lined stainless-steel autoclave to a filling capacity of 50%. The crystallization was carried out under autogenous pressure at the temperature of 190 °C for 24 h. Then, the autoclave was cooled naturally to room temperature, and the obtained nanoparticles can be separated from the suspension with a magnetic field. To remove the excess organic solvent and by-products completely, the products were washed several times with ethanol by magnetic decantation and vacuum-dried at room temperature.

Table 1 Composition, abbreviations of the sample names, and quantities of reagents required for the synthesis of the samples

Characterization

The crystal structure and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction measurements using a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation, 40 kV, 25 mA, λ = 1.5418 Å) and transmission electron microscopy (JEOL JEM-1230 microscope operated at an accelerating voltage of 80 kV). The ICP-MS analysis was carried out using high-resolution ICP-MS system Thermo Scientific ELEMENT XR. The Raman spectra were obtained using a Shamrock 750 spectrograph equipped with a CCD detector. The 533-nm line from the CW He–Ne randomly polarized laser was used for excitation. Magnetic properties were measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer (Lakeshore 7400 series VSM) in the applied field of H =  ± 17 kOe.

Scheme 1
scheme1

Flowchart for the synthesis of Co-doped FeMn2O4 nanoparticles

Results and Discussions

The XRD patterns of the samples with various concentrations of cobalt are shown in Fig. 1a. It can be seen that as the Mn content increased, the peaks in XRD spectra become narrower and sharper, which indicates an increase in the crystallite size of nanoparticles and their better crystallinity. The diffraction peaks at 29.4°, 34.9°, 42.4°, 56.4°, 61.7, and 73.1° correspond to the planes indexed (220), (311), (400), (511), (440), (533), respectively, and they are consistent with standard JCPDS Card No. 10–0319 of jacobsite ferrite with a face-centered cubic structure (space group \(Fd\overline{3}m\)). Although bulk samples crystallize in a tetragonal structure, a similar XRD patterns indicating the formation of a cubic structure was observed for FeMn2O4 nanoparticles [17, 18], which may be associated with the existence of a size-dependent phase transition in FeMn2O4 nanoparticles [30].

Fig. 1
figure1

X-ray diffraction patterns of the Fe(Mn1−xCox)2O4 nanoparticles (a) and shifting of (311) peak (b)

The average crystallite size (from the broadening of the most intensive peak (311)) and the lattice parameter of the synthesized samples were calculated in accordance with the relations (1) and (2), and the results are given in Table 1. The calculated values confirmed that crystallite size decreases with the increase in Co content from 9.1 nm (for the sample S1) to 4.4 nm (for the sample S6).

$$d_{XRD} = \frac{0.89\lambda }{{\beta \cos \theta }} \left( 1 \right);\;\;a = d_{hkl} \sqrt {h^{2} + k^{2} + l^{2} } \left( 2 \right)$$

where λ—the radiation wavelength (0.15418 nm for Cu Kα); β—the line broadening of a diffraction peak at angle θ; dhkl—inter planar distance; (hkl) are the Miller indices.

The results obtained revealed that the lattice parameter (‘a’) decreases from 8.52 to 8.37 as Co concentration increases. Besides, the data (Fig. 1b) show that with increasing Co content the position of (311) peak slightly shifts toward higher values of 2θ. This shift as well as the decrease in ‘a’ are related [31, 32] to the substitution of larger Mn ions (rMn = 0.645 Å) for Co ions (rCo = 0.545 Å) on the octahedral sites.

ICP-MS analysis was performed to determine the actual composition of the synthesized samples. The results of the analysis showed that in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 the actual compositions are in good agreement with expected ones, while in the range 0.4 < x ≤ 1 the actual compositions are slightly shifted toward lower values of x (see Table 2), indicating a slight loss of Co during synthesis of these samples.

Table 2 The actual compositions obtained from the results of ICP-MS, the average crystallite sizes calculated by the Scherrer equation (dXRD), and lattice constants (a) of the Co-doped FeMn2O4 nanoparticles

TEM images for FeMn2O4 and FeCo1.8O4 samples are shown in Fig. 2 and demonstrate that particles uniform in size and have a spherical or quasi-spherical shape with a tendency to agglomerate. The agglomeration of the nanoparticles may be related to the influence of Van der Waals forces that dominates all other forces when the particle size is less than a few micrometers [33]. Figure 2c and d demonstrates the particle size distribution for the samples S1 and S6 with Gaussian fitting of the distribution. The average particle sizes are 10.5 ± 2 nm (x = 0) and 5.3 ± 1.5 (x = 0.9) nm, and these values are in good agreement with the results obtained by XRD.

Fig. 2
figure2

TEM micrographs of the samples and the histograms of the particle size distribution: (a), (c) for FeMn2O4 nanoparticles; (b), (d) for FeCo1.8O4 nanoparticles

The Raman spectra of Co-doped FeMn2O4 nanoparticles in the range of 250–1000 cm−1 are presented in Fig. 3. The XRD analysis revealed that the synthesized samples crystallized in a cubic structure and group theoretical analysis for space group \(Fd\overline{3}m\) predict [34] five Raman active modes: A1g, Eg, and three T2g. In our samples, only three major peaks were detected in Raman spectra: two intense at ~ 634 cm−1 and 479 cm−1 one weak at ~ 321 cm−1. Based on the previous studies of Raman spectra of spinel oxides [34, 35], it can be concluded that the Raman peaks correspond to the following modes: peak at ~ 634 cm−1 is due to A1g mode involving symmetric stretching of oxygen atoms concerning the metal ions in tetrahedral AO4 groups. It can also be seen that the peak is broadened for the samples 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.9, which is related to the replacement of Mn2+ to Co2+ ions in tetrahedral sites leading to a redistribution of Mn/Co–O bonds and, as a consequence, broadening of A1g peak. Two low-frequency modes at ~ 321 and ~ 479 cm−1 correspond to Eg and T2g(2) modes, respectively, and are related to metal ions involved in octahedral BO6 sites. The peak at ~ 457 cm−1 can be assigned phenyl ring deformation out-of-plane of benzyl alcohol [36], which was used in the synthesis process. Thus, the results of Raman spectroscopy confirmed the cubic structure of the synthesized nanoparticles.

Fig. 3
figure3

Room-temperature Raman spectra of the Fe(Mn1−xCox)2O4 nanoparticles

The magnetic hysteresis loops of the Fe(Mn1-xCox)2O4 nanoparticles measured at room temperature are shown in Fig. 4a and b that presents a dependence of the saturation magnetization on cobalt concentration.

Fig. 4
figure4

Magnetic hysteresis loops of the samples with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.9 a) and concentration dependence of the saturation magnetization (b). The upper inset shows the hysteresis loops on an enlarged scale; The lower inset shows M versus 1/H curves in high magnetic fields

As can be seen from Fig. 4a, the magnetic hysteresis loops of the samples are S-like curves with zero remanent magnetization and coercivity, which indicates that all synthesized samples are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The values of the saturation magnetization obtained from the analysis of M versus 1/H curves are presented in Fig. 4b. It should be noted that the value of saturation magnetization for sample S6 is slightly lower than that reported in the literature (MS = 40.5 emu/g) [37] for larger nanoparticles (dXRD = 21.6 nm) which can be explained by the influence of the size effect on the magnetic properties. At the same time, the obtained value is higher than for coated FeCo2O4 nanoparticles (MS = 22 emu/g; d ~ 40 nm) [17]. Thus, we can conclude that although the Raman measurements revealed a trace of benzyl alcohol, its presence on the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles is rather small and does not affect their magnetic properties.

The obtained results demonstrate that the saturation magnetization first increases with a corresponding increase in the Co content from 39.9 (x = 0) to 48.4 emu/g (x = 0.4) and with a further increase in x, the saturation magnetization decreases to 31.6 emu/g (x = 0.9). Since an atomic magnetic moment of Co2+ (3 µB) is less than magnetic moments of Mn2+ and Fe3+ (5 µB for both) [38, 39], it is expected the decrease in magnetization with the increase in Co content, which is in agreement with experimental results in the range of 0.4 < x ≤ 0.9. However, for the concentration range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4, an increase in the saturation magnetization is observed with increasing x, which can be explained by the redistribution of cations between tetrahedral and octahedral sites. In accordance with Néel’s two-sublattice theory, inter-sublattice interaction (AB) is much stronger than the intra-sublattice interactions (AA and BB) and the net magnetization is proportional to the difference between the magnetic moment of tetrahedral (MA) and octahedral (MB) sites and is given by \({M}_{S}={M}_{B}-{M}_{A}\) [40]. It is assumed that at low concentration Co2+ ions push Fe3+ ions from tetrahedral to octahedral B sites, which leads to an increase in the octahedral magnetic moment due to an increase in Fe3+ ions and, as a result, an increase in the net magnetization.

Conclusions

The effect of Co doping on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe(Mn1-xCox)2O4 nanoparticles prepared by the solvothermal method was studied. The results of the structural analysis showed that particles are uniform in size and have spherical or quasi-spherical shapes, herewith with the increase in cobalt content, the average particle size decreases from 10.5 ± 2 nm (x = 0) to 5.3 ± 1.5 (x = 0.9) nm. Although bulk and single crystal samples of FeMn2O4 crystallize in a tetragonal structure, the results of XRD and Raman showed that the synthesized nanoparticles crystallized in a cubic structure, which may indicate the existence of a size-dependent phase transition in FeMn2O4. Magnetic measurements revealed the superparamagnetic nature of all samples at room temperature. It has been found that in the range of 0.4 < x ≤ 0.9 the saturation magnetization decreases, as expected. However, for the range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4, an increase in the saturation magnetization is observed. Such behavior can be associated with the redistribution of Fe3+ ions between tetrahedral and octahedral sites.

Availability of Data and Materials

The raw and processed data required to reproduce these findings cannot be shared at this time as the data also forms part of an ongoing study. However, some data required to reproduce these results can be provided upon request by email: aleksandr.a.spivakov@gmail.com.

References

  1. 1.

    Hirohata A, Takanashi K (2014) Future perspectives for spintronic devices. J Phys D Appl Phys 47:193001. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/47/19/193001

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Wu L, Mendoza-Garcia A, Li Q, Sun S (2016) Organic phase syntheses of magnetic nanoparticles and their applications. Chem Rev 116:10473–10512. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00687

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Padmanathan N, Selladurai S (2014) Mesoporous MnCo2O4 spinel oxide nanostructure synthesized by solvothermal technique for supercapacitor. Ionics 20:479–487. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-013-1009-8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Amiri M, Salavati-Niasari M, Akbari A (2019) Magnetic nanocarriers: evolution of spinel ferrites for medical applications. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 265:29–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2019.01.003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Goldstein A, Shames AI, Stevenson AJ, Cohen Z, Vulfson M (2013) Parasitic Light absorption processes in transparent polycrystalline MgAl2O4 and YAG. J Am Ceram Soc 96:3523–3529. https://doi.org/10.1111/jace.12525

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Kirankumar VS, Sumathi S (2020) A review on photodegradation of organic pollutants using spinel oxide. Mater Today Chem 18:100355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtchem.2020.100355

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Belous A, Tovstolytkin A, Solopan S, Shlapa Yu, Fedorchuk O (2018) Synthesis, properties and applications of some magnetic oxide based nanoparticles and films. Acta Phys Pol A 133:1006–1012. https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.133.1006

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Verwey EJW, Heilmann EL (1947) Physical properties and cation arrangements of oxides with spinel structures. I. Cation arrangements in spinels. J Chem Phys 15:174–80. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1746464

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    O’Neill HSC, Navrotsky A (1983) Simple spinels; crystallographic parameters, cation radii, lattice energies, and cation distribution. Am Miner 68:181–194

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Paudel TR, Zakutayev A, Lany S, d’Avezac M, Zunger A (2011) Doping rules and doping prototypes in A2BO4 spinel oxides. Adv Funct Mater 21:4493–4501. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201101469

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Dwivedi S, Sharma R, Sharma Y (2014) Electroconductive properties in doped spinel oxides. Optic Mater 37:656–665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2014.08.010

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Deepak FL, Bañobre-Lopez M, Carbo-Argibay E, Cerqueira MF, Piñeiro-Redondo Y, Rivas J, Thompson CM, Kamali S, Rodriguez-Abreu C, Kovnir K, Kolenko YV (2015) A systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-, Co-, and Ni-doped colloidal magnetite nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 119:11947–11957. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b01575

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kolhatkar AG, Jamison AC, Litvinov D, Willson RC, Lee TR (2013) Tuning the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. Int J Mol Sci 14:15977–16009. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140815977

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Penoyer RF, Shafer MW (1959) On the magnetic anisotropy in manganese-iron spinels. J Appl Phys 30:315S-316S. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2185951

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Crapo WA (1960) Time decrease of initial permeability in MnxFe3−xO4+y. J Appl Phys 31:267S-268S. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1984692

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Tanaka M, Mizoguchi T, Aiyama Y (1963) Mössbauer effect in MnxFe3−xO4. J Phys Soc Jpn 18:1091. https://doi.org/10.1143/JPSJ.18.1091

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Amoli-Diva M, Asli MD, Karimi S (2017) FeMn2O4 nanoparticles coated dual responsive temperature and pH-responsive polymer as a magnetic nano-carrier for controlled delivery of letrozole anti-cancer. Nanomed J 4:218–223. https://doi.org/10.22038/NMJ.2017.04.003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Nagamuthu S, Vijayakumar S, Lee S-H, Ryu K-S (2016) Hybrid supercapacitor devices based on MnCo2O4 as the positive electrode and FeMn2O4 as the negative electrode. Appl Surf Sci 390:202–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.08.072

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Liu Y, Zhang N, Yu C, Jiao L, Chen J (2016) MnFe2O4@C nanofibers as high-performance anode for sodium-ion batteries. Nano Lett 16:3321. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00942

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Yamaguchi NU, Bergamasco R, Hamoudi S (2016) Magnetic MnFe2O4—graphene hybrid composite for efficient removal of glyphosate from water. Chem Eng J 295:391–402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.03.051

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Vignesh RH, Sankar KV, Amaresh S, Lee YS, Selvan RK (2015) Synthesis and characterization of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles for impedometric ammonia gas sensor. Sens Actuators B 220:50–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2015.04.115

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Kim J, Cho HR, Jeon H, Kim D, Song C, Lee N, Choi SH, Hyeon T (2017) Continuous O2- evolving MnFe2O4 nanoparticle-anchored mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient photodynamic therapy in hypoxic cancer. J Am Chem Soc 139:10992–10995. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b05559

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Brabers VAM (1969) Infrared spectra of cubic and tetragonal manganese ferrites. Phys Stat Solid 33:563. https://doi.org/10.1002/pssb.19690330209

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Kanamori J (1960) Crystal distortion in magnetic compounds. J Appl Phys 31:14S-23S. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1984590

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Dunitz JD, Orgel LE (1957) Electronic properties of transition-metal oxides—I: distortions from cubic symmetry. J Phys Chem Sol 3:20–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3697(57)90043-4

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Nepal R, Zhang Q, Dai S, Tian W, Nagler SE, Jin R (2018) Structural and magnetic transitions in spinel FeMn2O4 single crystals. Phys Rev B 97:024410. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.97.024410

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Naito K, Inaba H, Yagi H (1981) Heat capacity measurements of MnxFe3−xO4. J Sol Sta Chem 36:28–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4596(81)90188-2

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Lahiri P, Sengupta SK (1995) Physico-chemical properties and catalytic activities of the spinel series MnxFe3–xO4 towards peroxide decomposition. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 91:3489–3494. https://doi.org/10.1039/FT9959103489

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Gillot B, Laarj M, Kacim S (1997) Reactivity towards oxygen and cation distribution of manganese iron spinel Mn3−xFexO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) fine powders studied by thermogravimetry and IR spectroscopy. J Mater Chem 7:827–831. https://doi.org/10.1039/A607179A

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Liu L, Zhao R, Xiao C, Zhang F, Pevere F, Shi K, Huang H, Zhong H, Sychugov I (2019) Size-dependent phase transition in perovskite nanocrystals. J Phys Chem Lett 10:5451–5457. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b02058

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Li C, Han X, Cheng F, Hu Y, Chen C, Chen J (2015) Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis. Nat Commun 6:7345. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8345

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Yousuf MA, Baig MM, Waseem M, Haider S, Shakir I, Khan SU-D, Warsi MF (2019) Low cost micro-emulsion route synthesis of Cr-substituted MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Ceram Int 45:22316–22323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.07.259

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Werth JH, Linsenbuhler M, Dammer SM, Farkas Z, Hinrichsen H, Wirth K-E, Wolf DE (2003) Agglomeration of charged nanopowders in suspensions. Powder Technol 133:106–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-5910(03)00096-2

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    White WB, De Angelis BA (1967) Interpretation of the vibrational spectra of spinels. Spectrochem Acta 23A:985–995. https://doi.org/10.1016/0584-8539(67)80023-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Graves PR, Johnston C, Campaniello JJ (1988) Raman scattering in spinel structure ferrites. Mater Res Bull 23:1651–1660. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-5408(88)90255-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Prystupa DA, Anderson A, Torrie BH (1994) Raman and infrared study of solid benzyl alcohol. J Raman Spectrosc 25:175–182. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.1250250206

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Zhou R, Zhao J, Shen N, Ma T, Su Y, Ren H (2018) Efficient degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solution by peroxymonosulfate activated with magnetic spinel FeCo2O4 nanoparticles. Chemosphere 197:670–679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.079

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Concas G, Spano G, Cannas C, Musinu D, Peddis GP (2009) Inversion degree and saturation magnetization of different nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites. J Magn Magn Mater 321:1893–1897. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2008.12.001

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Ghodake UR, Chaudhari ND, Kambale RC, Patil JY, Suryavanshi SS (2016) Effect of Mn2+ substitution on structural, magnetic, electric and dielectric properties of Mg–Zn ferrites. J Magn Magn Mater 407:60–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.01.022

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Thakur SS, Pathania A, Thakur P, Thakur A, Hsu J-H (2015) Improved structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn–Zn–Cd nanoferrites. Ceram Int 41:5072–5078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2014.12.077

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We gratefully thank the Precision Instrument Center of NPUST, where Transmission Electron Microscopy studies were carried out, and the Core Facility Center of National Cheng Kung University for using ICP000400 for ICP-MS measurements.

Funding

This work was financially supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (Grant Nos. 109-2811-M-153-500- and 109-2112-M-153-003-).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization was contributed by C-RL, Y-TT; Data curation was contributed by AS; Formal analysis was contributed by AS, C-RL, and E-SL; Funding acquisition was contributed by C-RL; Investigation was contributed by E-SL, Y-ZC, AS; Methodology was contributed by Y-TT, AS, and C-RL; Project administration was contributed by C-RL; Software was contributed by Y-ZC; Supervision was contributed by Y-TT; Visualization was contributed by E-SL, AS; Writing was contributed by AS, E-SL, Y-ZC. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chun-Rong Lin.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Spivakov, A.A., Lin, CR., Lin, ES. et al. Preparation and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt-Doped FeMn2O4 Spinel Nanoparticles. Nanoscale Res Lett 16, 162 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03619-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • FeMn2O4 nanoparticles
  • Spinel ferrite
  • Cobalt doping
  • Magnetic properties