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Table 1 Research on active anode material, theoretical capacity, advantages

From: Nano and Battery Anode: A Review

Active anode material Theoretical capacity (mAh g−1) Advantages Common issues References
Insertion/de-insertion materials
A. Carbonaceous
a. Hard carbons
b. CNTS
c. Graphene
200–600
1116
780/1116
Good working potential
Low cost
Good safety
Low coulombic efficiency
High voltage hysteresis
High irreversible capacity
[3, 22,23,24,25,26,27,28]
Insertion/de-insertion materials
B. Titanium oxides
a. LiTi4O5
b. TiO2
175
330
Extreme safety
Good cycle life
Low cost
High power capability
Very low capacity
Low energy density
[29]
Alloy/de-alloy materials
a. Silicon
b. Germanium
c. Tin
d. Antimony
e. Tin oxide
f. SiO
4212
1624
993
660
790
1600
Higher specific capacities
High energy density
Good safety
Large irreversible capacity
Huge capacity fading
Poor cycling
[25, 26, 30,31,32,33,34]
Conversion materials
a. Metal oxides (Fe2O3, Fe3O4, CoO, Co3O4, MnxOy, Cu2O/CuO, NiO, Cr2O3, RuO2, MoO2/MoO3 etc.)
500–1200 High capacity
High energy
Low cost
Environmentally compatibility
High specific capacity
Low operation potential and Low polarization than counter oxides
Low coulumbic efficiency
Unstable SEI formation
Large potential hysteresis
Poor cycle life
Poor capacity retention
Short cycle life
High cost of production
[32, 33, 35,36,37,38]
Conversion materials
b. Metal phoshides/sulfides/nitrides
(MXy; M ¼ Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu,
Co etc. and X ¼ P, S, N)
500–1800 High capacity
High energy
Low cost
Environmentally compatibility
High specific capacity
Low operation potential and Low polarization than counter oxides
Low coulumbic efficiency
Unstable SEI formation
Large potential hysteresis
Poor cycle life
Poor capacity retention
Short cycle life
High cost of production
[33, 37, 38]