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Table 1 Comparison of multiple mechanisms for modulation

From: Ultracompact Nanophotonics: Light Emission and Manipulation with Metasurfaces

Modulation mechanism Active component Operation spectrum Modulation speed Advantages Limitations Refs
Mechanical tunability Au/PDMS
Cu w/o substrate
Al/PDMS
Au/PDMS
Al/PDMS
Vis
Microwave
Vis
Vis
MIR
s to ms scale Simple, low cost, extensive tuning range Modulation speed, stability, reliability [52,53,54,55,56]
Thermal tunability VO2/Au/sapphire
Au/SiO2/VO2/Si
VO2/sapphire
VO2/Si
hBN/VO2/quartz
NIR to MIR
mm
μm
MIR
MIR
ms scale Reversible, low transition temperature Low heating speed, energy loss [65,66,67,68,69]
  GST/Al/Si
Al/GST/Al/Si
Au/GST/CaF2
ZnS/SiO2-GST-ZnS/SiO2/quartz
GST/CaF2
NIR to MIR
NIR to MIR
NIR to MIR
Vis
NIR to MIR
ms to fs scale Efficient, stable, nonvolatile Cooling rate limited, energy loss [72,73,74,75,76]
Optical tunability nGaAs/AlGaAs/epoxy/sapphire
Al/Si/SiO2
Si/sapphire
All Si
THz fs to ps scale Ultrafast speed, nonvolatile Power consumption, modulation depth [78,79,80,81]
Electrical tunability Au/ITO/SiO2/Au/quartz
ITO/Au/SiNx/Si/Au
Au/Al2O3/ITO/Au/quartz
Au/Al2O3/ITO/Au
Si/Al2O3/ITO/Au/Si
Au/HAOL/ITO/Al2O3/Au/PCB
Vis to MIR
NIR to MIR
NIR
THz
THz
NIR
μs scale Fast speed, good stability Power consumption, modulation depth [32, 35,36,37, 98, 99]
  ITO/Si/fused silica
Au/Al2O3/ITO/Si
NIR
NIR
μs scale Fast speed, good stability Power consumption, modulation depth [38, 39]
  1. The significance of bold indicates the corresponding tunable components in metasurfaces for different types of modulation mechanisms