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Table 1 Summary of properties and nanoelectronic applications of conductive gels

From: RETRACTED ARTICLE: Conductive Gels: Properties and Applications of Nanoelectronics

Conductive components Materials Optical property Application References
Metallic nanoparticles/nanowires Ag/Au/Cu nanoparticles Transparent or semitransparent Biosensor drug delivery, tissue engineering [85, 87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98]
Carbon-based materials CNTs Mostly black or semitransparent Strain sensor, tissue engineering, biosensor, supercapacitor, drug delivery [99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113]
Carbon-based materials GO/rGO/graphene Mostly black or semitransparent Strain sensor, tissue engineering, biosensor, supercapacitor, drug delivery [99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113]
Conducting polymers Polyaniline Mostly black and rarely transparent Tissue engineering, biosensor, drug delivery, supercapacitor, bioelectrode, strain sensor [114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139]
Conducting polymers Polypyrrole Mostly black and rarely transparent Tissue engineering, biosensor, drug delivery, supercapacitor, bioelectrode, strain sensor [114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135, 140,141,142,143]
Conducting polymers PEDOT:PSS Mostly black and rarely transparent Tissue engineering, biosensor, drug delivery, supercapacitor, bioelectrode, strain sensor [114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135, 144,145,146,147]
Hybrid Pt/Ag/(GO + rGO)/SWCNTs + polyaniline Usually black or semitransparent Biosensor, battery, fuel cell, supercapacitor, tissue engineering, pressure sensor, strain sensor [148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,162,163]
Hybrid Au/(Fe + Co)/Fe3O4/CNTs + polypyrrole Usually black or semitransparent Biosensor, battery, fuel cell, supercapacitor, tissue engineering, pressure sensor, strain sensor [148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160, 164,165,166,167]
Hybrid Graphene/GO + Ni/Ni(OH)2 Usually black or semitransparent Biosensor, battery, fuel cell, supercapacitor, tissue engineering, pressure sensor, strain sensor [148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160, 168,169,170,171,172]
Hybrid GO + PEDOT:PSS Usually black or semitransparent Biosensor, battery, fuel cell, supercapacitor, tissue engineering, pressure sensor, strain sensor [148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160]
Hybrid GO + CuS + carbon dot Usually black or semitransparent Biosensor, battery, fuel cell, supercapacitor, tissue engineering, pressure sensor, strain sensor [148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160, 173,174,175]
Acids H2SO4/H3PO4 Transparent Supercapacitor [176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187]
Metallic salts LiCl/Na+/Ca2+ Transparent or semitransparent Supercapacitor, solar cell, nanogenerator, actuator, electronic eel/fish, displays, touch panels, pressure sensor, strain sensor, biosensor [180,181,182, 188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,216,217,218,219,220,221]
Metallic salts Al3+/Fe3+/Tb3+/K+ Transparent or semitransparent Supercapacitor, solar cell, nanogenerator, actuator, electronic eel/fish, displays, touch panels, pressure sensor, strain sensor, biosensor [183,184,185, 188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,216,217,218,219,220,221]
Metallic salts Na2S + sulfur + NaOH Transparent or semitransparent Supercapacitor, solar cell, nanogenerator, actuator, electronic eel/fish, displays, touch panels, pressure sensor, strain sensor, biosensor [186,187,188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,216,217,218,219,220,221, 227230]
Ionic liquids Ionic liquids 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride Semitransparent [222]
Electron conductive Na++ Au nanoparticles Usually black or opaque Supercapacitor, biosensor, pressure sensor, battery strain sensor, tissue engineering [223]
components and ions HCl/HClO4/(Na++ SWCNTs) + polyaniline   Supercapacitor, biosensor, pressure sensor, battery strain sensor, tissue engineering [224,225,226]