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Table 2 Biomedical applications

From: A Brief Review of Carbon Dots–Silica Nanoparticles Synthesis and their Potential Use as Biosensing and Theragnostic Applications

Starting precursor Synthesis method Use Application References
Sargassum fluitans Hydrothermal DNA detection Biosensors [72]
Urea/citric acid Solvothermal RNA detection [73]
o-Phenylenediamine, 2-aminoterephthalic acid Solvothermal microRNA-21 detection [56]
Citric acid, basic fuchsin Hydrothermal Intracellular pH sensing [74]
Citric acid, ethylenediamine Hydrothermal Spectrofluorometric detection of cancer cells [75]
Diammonium hydrogen citrate Pyrolysis Escherichia coli and iron(III) detection [36]
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG800), cyanine dye Solvothermal Near-infrared fluorescence imaging and photothermal cancer therapy In vivo and in vitro imaging [76]
Citric acid, polyethyleneimine (PEI) Hydrothermal Lysosome labeling and imaging [77]
Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Hydrothermal Gene/drug delivery/imaging [78]
Citric acid, thiourea, 3-aminophenylboronic acid Hydrothermal Glucosamine and liver cancer cell imaging [79]
Carrot Hydrothermal Ratiometric two-photon fluorescence turn-on sensing of sulfide anion in biological fluids [37]
Polyethyleneimine (PEI), folic acid (FA) Hydrothermal Gene therapy Drug and gene delivery [55]